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Food and beverage operations : Production and service

.Understand the wide variety of processes available for
food and beverage production.
.Understand the principles, practices and complexity of
modern food safety legislation.
.Understand the contribution to profi tability of using the
correct food and beverage production method for a
particular type of outlet.
.Match food and beverage service to an appropriate food
and beverage production method.

Food production may be defi ned as that phase of
the food fl ow (i.e. from the purchasing of the foods to
service to the customer) mainly concerned with the
processing of raw, semi-prepared or prepared foodstuffs.
The resulting product may be in a ready-toserve
state, for example in the conventional method
(cook-serve); or it may undergo some form of preservation,
for example cook-chill or cook-freeze, before
being served to the customer.
Beverage production may be defi ned as the
processing of the raw, semi-prepared or prepared
beverage product, so that it is in a ready-to-serve state
before being served to the customer. For example, a
raw beverage product such as tea would need to be
fully processed before being served, a semi-prepared
product such as a cordial would require only partial
preparation, and a bottled fruit juice or bottle of wine
may be termed a fully prepared beverage product.
The fi ne dividing line between food and beverage
production and food and beverage service is not
always distinguishable. The point at which production
ends, and service begins, is often diffi cult to defi ne.
It is often necessary, therefore, to include certain aspects of, for
example, food service when describing food production methods,
in order that the production method may be seen in the
context of the whole catering operation, and not in isolation.
The decision as to which food and beverage production
method to use in a particular catering operation is taken at the
initial planning stage – at this point the market to be catered for,
and hence the type of catering facility to be offered, has been
decided upon. The initial planning of a food service facility is
critical to the long-term success of the operation, and one which
must be afforded time, fi nance and commitment in order to avoid
costly mistakes later. As a minimum it is essential that the food
production and service model chosen is suitable for the type
of operation the organization requires whilst at the same time
meeting all the requirements of the food hygiene regulations
and in particular the holding temperatures for hot or chilled
food. On a practical note it is often very helpful to invite the local
Environmental Health Offi cer (EHO) to the premises in advance
of setting out the kitchen or installing equipment. Getting them
‘on side ’ at this early stage can form the basis of a good working
relationship in the future and minimize any risk of not complying
with regulation or good practice.
Hazard analysis and critical control point
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a
systematic approach to identifying and controlling hazards,
whether they are microbiological, chemical or physical in nature.
Although in many food and beverage operations a number
of the hazards are likely to be the same, each establishment is
required to undertake an analysis that can identify any potential
hazard for that particular organization. The local EHO will be
able to offer advice on how best to approach this together with
some ideas on what records you would need to keep for the particular
service in question.
There are seven key stages for HACCP on which a food safety
management system can be designed and implemented (see
Figure 7.1 ). The process is systematic and will need to be applied
to each group of products.
Figure 7.1
Based on an HACCP procedure
developed by the Lakeside
Restaurant University of Surrey


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