Professional Cooking Essential Glossary

Last / Next  2010-11-24 06:41:59 / Classification:restaurant

Based on this page: Basic Cooking Vacabulary

Adductor Muscle The muscle with which a mollusk closes
its shell. In the case of American and Canadian scallops,
this is usually the only part that is eaten.

Aging Holding meats in coolers under controlled conditions
to allow natural tenderizing to take place.

À la Carte (1) Referring to a menu on which each individual
item is listed with a separate price. (2) Referring to cooking
to order, as opposed to cooking ahead in large

Al Dente Firm, not soft or mushy, to the bite. Said of vegetables
and pasta.

Allemande (1) German style. (2) A sauce made of velouté
(usually veal), a liaison, and lemon juice.

Allumette Cut into matchstick shapes; usually refers to

Anthocyanins Red or purple pigments in vegetables and

Antipasto Italian hors d’oeuvre.

AP Weight As purchased; the weight of an item before trimming.

Arborio Rice A variety of short-grain rice from Italy.

Argenteuil (ar zhawn toy) Garnished with asparagus.

AS Weight As served; the weight of an item as sold or served,
after processing and/or cooking.

Au Gratin (oh gra tan) Having a browned or crusted top,
often made by topping with bread crumbs, cheese, and/or
a rich sauce and passing under the broiler or salamander.

Au Jus (oh zhoo) Served with its natural juices, usually
unthickened pan drippings.

Au Sec (oh seck) Until dry.

Bacteria Microscopic organisms, some of which can cause
disease, including food-borne disease.

Bain-Marie A container of hot water used for keeping foods

Bake To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air.
Similar to roast, but the term bake usually applies to
breads, pastries, vegetables, and fish.

Barbecue To cook with dry heat created by the burning of
hardwood or by the hot coals of this wood.

Bard To tie thin slices of fat, such as pork fatback, over meats
with no natural fat cover to protect them while roasting.

Basmati Rice A variety of long-grain rice from India.

Batonnet Cut into sticks, about ¼ × ¼ × 2½–3 inches
(6 mm × 6 mm × 6–7.5 cm).

Batter Semiliquid mixture containing flour or other starch,
used for the production of such products as cakes and
breads and for coating products to be deep-fried.

Béarnaise (bare nez) A sauce made of butter and egg yolks
and flavored with a reduction of vinegar, shallots, tarragon,
and peppercorns.

Béchamel A sauce made by thickening milk with a roux.

Beignet Fritter.

Beurre Manié (burr mahn yay) A mixture of equal parts raw
butter and flour mixed together into a smooth paste.

Beurre Noir (burr nwahr) Butter heated until it is dark
brown, then flavored with vinegar.

Beurre Noisette (burr nwah zett) Whole butter heated until
it is light brown.

Bisque A cream soup made from shellfish.

Bivalve A mollusk with a pair of hinged shells, such as clam
and oyster.

Blanch To cook an item partially and briefly in boiling water
or in hot fat. Usually a pre-preparation technique, as to
loosen peels from vegetables, fruits, and nuts, to partially
cook French fries or other foods before service, to prepare
for freezing, or to remove undesirable flavors.

Blanquette A white stew made of white meat or poultry
simmered without preliminary browning and served with
a white sauce.

Boar Wild pig, or the meat from this animal.

Boil To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling rapidly,
about 212°F (100°C) at sea level and at normal

Bordelaise A brown sauce flavored with a reduction of red
wine, shallots, pepper, and herbs and garnished with

Botulism A deadly food-borne intoxication usually associated
with improperly canned foods.

Bouquet Garni A combination of fresh herbs tied together,
used for flavoring.

Bouquetière (book tyair) Garnished with an assortment or
bouquet of fresh vegetables, such as artichokes, carrots,
turnips, green beans, peas, cauliflower, and potatoes.

Braise (1) To cook covered in a small amount of liquid, usually
after preliminary browning. (2) To cook (certain vegetables)
slowly in a small amount of liquid without preliminary

Brioche Rich yeast dough containing large amounts of eggs
and butter, or the product made from this dough.

Broil To cook with radiant heat from above.

Broth A flavorful liquid obtained from the simmering of
meats and/or vegetables.

Brunoise (broon wahz) (1) Cut into very small (1/8 inch/
3 mm) dice. (2) Garnished with vegetables cut in this

Bulgur A type of cracked wheat that has been partially

Butterflied Cut partially through and spread open to
increase the surface area.

Calamari Italian for "squid" (plural).

Calorie The amount of heat needed to raise the temperature
of 1 kg water by 1°C. Used as a measure of food energy.

Canapé (can ah pay) Tiny open-faced sandwich, served as
an hors d’oeuvre.

Capon A castrated male chicken.

Cappuccino Mixture of equal parts espresso and frothy,
steamed milk.

Caramelization The browning of sugars caused by heat.

Carbohydrates Any of a group of compounds, including
starches and sugars, that supply energy to the body.

Carême, Marie-Antoine Famous nineteenth-century French
chef, often considered the founder of classical cuisine.

Carotenoids Yellow or orange pigments in vegetables and

Carpaccio Very thin slices of meat or fish, served raw.

Carry-over Cooking The rise in temperature inside roast
meat after it is removed from the oven.

Caul A fatty membrane that covers the stomach of a pig;
used for wrapping meats for cooking and for lining terrines.

Celsius Scale The metric system of temperature measurement,
with 0°C set at the freezing point of water and
100°C set at the boiling point of water.

Centi- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one-hundredth."

Cephalopod A member of the class of mollusks that
includes octopus and squid.

Chasseur (sha sur) "Hunter style," usually referring to items
served with a brown sauce containing mushrooms,
tomato, and white wine.

Chef The person in charge of a kitchen or of a department
of a kitchen.

Chèvre A cheese made from goat’s milk.

Chiffonade Cut into fine shreds; usually said of leafy vegetables
and herbs.

China Cap A cone-shaped strainer.

Chitterlings Pork intestines.

Chlorophyll Green pigment in vegetables and fruits.

Cholesterol A fatty substance found in foods derived from
animal products and in the human body; it has been
linked to heart disease.

Chop To cut into irregularly shaped pieces.

Choucroute (shoo kroot) Sauerkraut.

Chowder A hearty American soup made from fish, shellfish,
and/or vegetables, usually containing milk and potatoes.

Cilantro The fresh coriander plant, used as an herb.

Clamart Garnished with or containing peas.

Clarified Butter Purified butterfat, with water and milk
solids removed.

Clearmeat A mixture of ground meat, egg whites, and flavoring
ingredients, used to clarify consommés.

Club Sandwich A sandwich consisting of three slices of toast
and filled with such ingredients as sliced chicken or
turkey, lettuce, tomato, and bacon.

Coagulation The process by which proteins become firm,
usually when heated.

Cocktail A type of appetizer generally made of seafood or
fruit and often served with a tart or tangy sauce.

Collagen A type of connective tissue in meats that dissolves
when cooked with moisture.

Combi (Combination) Oven An oven that can operate in
conventional, convection, and steamer modes.

Complementary Protein Protein supplied by foods that, if
eaten together, supply all the amino acids necessary in the
human diet.

Complete Protein A protein that supplies all the amino
acids necessary in the human diet.

Compound Butter A mixture of raw butter and various flavoring

Concasser To chop coarsely.

Conduction The transfer of heat from one item to something
touching it or a cooler part of the first item.

Consommé A rich, flavorful seasoned stock or broth that has
been clarified to make it perfectly clear and transparent.

Convection The transfer of heat by the movement of a liquid
or gas.

Convection Oven An oven in which hot air is circulated by
a fan.

Convenience Food Any food product that has been partially or
completely prepared or processed by the manufacturer.

Coq au Vin (coke oh van) A French dish of chicken braised
in wine.

Coral The roe or eggs of certain shellfish.

Coulis A vegetable or fruit purée, used as a sauce.

Course A food or group of foods served at one time or
intended to be eaten at the same time.

Court Bouillon (koor bwee yohn) Water containing seasonings,
herbs, and, usually, an acid; used for cooking fish.

Couscous A type of granular pasta from North Africa,
cooked like a grain.

Cream Soup A soup thickened with roux or another thickening
agent and containing milk and/or cream.

Crécy (kray see) Garnished with or containing carrots.

Crème Fraîche A thick, slightly aged heavy cream.

Crépinette A sausage patty wrapped in caul.

Critical Control Point (CCP) An action that can be taken to
eliminate or minimize a food safety hazard.

Croissant A crescent-shaped roll made from a rich, rolled-in
yeast dough.

Croquette (crow kett) Food that has been puréed or bound
with a thick sauce, made into small shapes, breaded, and

Cross-Contamination The transfer of bacteria to food from
another food or from equipment or work surfaces.

Crudité (croo dee tay) A raw vegetable served as a relish.

Crustacean A sea animal with a segmented shell and jointed
legs, such as lobster and shrimp.

Custard A liquid that is thickened or set firm by the coagulation
of egg protein.

Cuttlefish A cephalopod similar to squid but with a chalky
interior bone and a squatter body shape.

Cycle Menu A menu that changes every day for a certain
period, then repeats the same daily items in the same

Danish A rich, sweet, flaky yeast dough containing layers of
rolled-in fat.

Deci- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one-tenth."

Deep-fry To cook submerged in hot fat.

Deglaze To swirl a liquid in a sauté pan or other pan to
dissolve cooked particles or food remaining on the

Demiglaze A rich brown sauce that has been reduced by

Demitasse Literally, "half cup." Strong, black coffee served
in small cups after dinner.

Doria Garnished with cucumbers cooked in butter.

Drawn With entrails removed.

Dressed (1) Poultry market form. killed, bled, and plucked.
(2) Fish market form. viscera, scales, head, tail, and fins

Dry-Heat Cooking Method A method in which heat is conducted
to foods without the use of moisture.

Dubarry Garnished with or containing cauliflower.

Duchesse Potatoes (doo shess) Potato purée mixed with
butter and egg yolks.

Duxelles A coarse paste or hash made of finely chopped
mushrooms sautéed with shallots.

Elastin A type of connective tissue in meats that does not
dissolve when cooked.

Emincer (em an say) To cut into very thin slices.

Emulsion A uniform. mixture of two unmixable liquids.

Entremetier (awn truh met yay) The cook who prepares
vegetables, starches, soups, and eggs.

Epazote (ep ah so tay) A pungent herb, used in Mexican

EP Weight Edible portion; the weight of an item after all
trimming and preparation is done.

Escoffier, Georges Auguste Great chef of the early twentieth
century and the father of modern cookery.

Espagnole A sauce made of brown stock and flavoring
ingredients and thickened with a brown roux.

Espresso, Expresso Strong, dark coffee made from beans
roasted until almost black, ground very fine, and brewed
under steam pressure.

Étuver (ay too vay) To cook or steam an item in its own
juices; to sweat.

Executive Chef The manager of a large kitchen or food production

Extended Meal Service Service of a meal at which customers
eat at different times.

Farro A grain that is the ancestor of modern wheat.

Fermentation The process by which yeast acts on carbohydrates
to change them into carbon dioxide gas and alcohol.

Fermière (fair myair) Garnished with carrots, turnips,
onions, and celery cut into uniform. slices.

Fettuccine Flat egg noodles.

Fiber A group of indigestible carbohydrates found in grains,
fruits, and vegetables.

Fillet, Filet (1) Meat: Boneless tenderloin. (2) Fish: Boneless
side of fish.

Flavones White pigments in vegetables and fruits.

Florentine Garnished with or containing spinach.

Flow of Food The path that food travels in a food service
operation from receiving to serving.

Fond Lié A sauce made by thickening brown stock with
cornstarch or a similar starch.

Fondue, Swiss A dish consisting of melted Gruyère and
Emmenthaler cheeses and white wine into which cubes of
bread are dipped and eaten. From the French word meaning

Food Danger Zone The temperature range of 41° to 140°F
(5° to 60°C), in which bacteria grow rapidly.

Forestière Garnished with mushrooms.

Free-Range Referring to animals, usually poultry, that are
allowed to move relatively freely outdoors as they are
raised for market.

French Dressing Salad dressing made of oil, vinegar, and

Fricassée A white stew in which the meat is cooked in fat
without browning before liquid is added.

Frisée A variety of curly endive or chicory that is more tender
and lighter in color than curly endive.

Fry To cook in hot fat.

Fumet (foo may) A flavorful stock, usually fish stock.

Game Meat from animals and birds normally found in the
wild; many game animals are now farm-raised.

Garni Garnished. Having had garnish added to it.

Garniture (1) Garnish. (2) The act or process of garnishing.

Gelatinization The process by which starch granules
absorb water and swell in size.

Glace de Viande (glahss duh vee awnd) Meat glaze; a reduction
of brown stock.

Glaze (1) A stock that is reduced until it coats the back of a
spoon. (2) A shiny coating, such as a syrup, applied to a
food. (3) To make a food shiny or glossy by coating it
with a glaze or by browning it under a broiler or in a hot

Gluten A substance, made of proteins present in wheat
flour, that gives structure and strength to baked goods.

Glutinous Rice A type of short-grain rice that becomes
sticky and chewy when cooked.

Gram The basic unit of weight in the metric system; equal
to about one-thirtieth of an ounce.

Gras Double (grah doo bl’) A type of beef tripe that is
smooth rather than honeycombed.

Green Meat Meat that has not had enough time after
slaughter to develop tenderness and flavor.

Griddle To cook on a flat, solid cooking surface called a

Grill To cook on an open grid over a heat source.

Grillardin (gree ar dan) Broiler cook.

Gross Pièce (gross pyess) Centerpiece of a buffet platter.

Guinea A domestically raised relative of the pheasant.

HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point; a food
safety system of self-inspection, designed to highlight
hazardous foods and to control food handling to avoid

Hare A game animal similar to rabbit, with dark red, lean

Hash (1) To chop. (2) A dish made of chopped foods.

Hazard A potentially dangerous food condition due to contamination,
growth of pathogens, survival of pathogens,
or presence of toxins.

Herbs The leaves of certain plants, used in flavoring.

Hollandaise A sauce made of butter, egg yolks, and flavorings
(especially lemon juice).

Hominy Corn that has been treated with lye.

Homogenized Milk Milk that has been processed so that
the cream doesn’t separate out.

Hongroise (ong grwahz) Hungarian style.

Hygroscopic Readily absorbing moisture.

Induction Cooktop A type of cooktop that works by using
magnetic energy to make pots hot without getting hot

Infection Disease, including much food-borne disease,
caused by bacteria in the body.

Intoxication Disease caused by poisons that bacteria produce
while they are growing in food.

Jardinière (zhar din yair) Garnished with fresh "garden"
vegetables, such as carrots, turnips, green beans, peas, and

Jasmine Rice A type of aromatic rice from Southeast Asia.

Judic Garnished with braised lettuce.

Julienne (1) Cut into small, thin strips, about 1/8 × 1/8 × 2½
inches (3 mm × 3 mm × 6½ cm). (2) Garnished with
foods cut in this manner.

Jus (zhoo) Unthickened juices from a roast.

Jus Lié Thickened juices from a roast.

Kasha Whole buckwheat groats.

Kilo- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one thousand."

Lacto-ovo-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that
includes dairy products and eggs.

Lacto-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes
milk and other dairy products.

Lard (1) The rendered fat of hogs. (2) To insert strips of fat
into meats low in marbling.

Lasagne Broad, flat egg noodles, or a baked, layered casserole
made with these noodles.

Leading Sauce A basic sauce used in the production of other
sauces. The five leading hot sauces are béchamel, velouté,
espagnole, tomato, and hollandaise. Mayonnaise and
vinaigrette are often considered leading cold sauces.

Leavening The production or incorporation of gases in a
baked product to increase volume and to produce shape
and texture.

Lemongrass A tropical grass with the aroma of lemon, used
for flavoring.

Liaison A binding agent, usually made of cream and egg
yolks, used to thicken sauces and soups.

Liter The basic unit of volume in the metric system; equal to
slightly more than 1 quart.

London Broil Flank steak or other cut of beef broiled rare
and cut in thin slices.

Lyonnaise (lee oh nez) Containing or garnished with onions.

Macaroni Noodle product made of flour and water and

Mâche A small, tender leafy green with a delicate taste.

Magret The boneless breast of the moulard duck.

Maître d’Hôtel Butter (may truh doh tell) Compound butter
containing parsley and lemon juice.

Marbling The fat deposited within muscle tissue.

Marinate To soak a food in a seasoned liquid.

Marsala A flavorful sweet to semidry wine from Sicily.

Mayonnaise A semisolid cold sauce or dressing consisting of
oil and vinegar emulsified with egg yolks.

Mesclun A mixture of tender baby lettuces.

Meter The basic unit of length in the metric system; slightly
longer than 1 yard.

Meunière Referring to fish prepared by dredging in flour
and sautéing, served with brown butter, lemon juice, and

Microwave Radiation generated in special ovens and used to
cook or heat foods.

Milli- Prefix in the metric system meaning "one-thousandth."
Mince To chop into very fine pieces.

Mirepoix (meer pwah) A mixture of rough-cut or diced
vegetables, herbs, and spices, used for flavoring.

Mise en Place (meez on plahss) French term meaning
"everything in place." The setup for food production. All
the preparations and organization that must be made
before actual production can begin.

Moist-Heat Cooking Methods Methods in which heat is
conducted to foods by water or other liquid or by steam.

Mollusk A soft-bodied sea animal, usually inside a pair of
hinged shells, such as clam and oyster.

Monter au Beurre (mohn tay oh burr) To finish a sauce or
soup by swirling in raw butter until it is melted.

Mornay A sauce made of béchamel and Gruyère cheese.

Moulard A breed of duck with a thick, meaty breast, raised
for its large, fatty liver.

Mozzarella A mild unripened cheese, used in pizzas and
many other Italian-style. dishes.

Navarin A brown lamb stew.

New England Boiled Dinner A dish consisting of simmered
corned beef and simmered vegetables, served together.

Niçoise (nee swahz) (1) Prepared in the style. of Nice,
France. (2) Garnished with or containing tomato concassé
cooked with garlic.

Nouvelle Cuisine A modern style. of cooking that emphasizes
lightness of sauces and seasonings, shortened cooking
times, and new and sometimes startling combinations
of foods.

Offal Variety meats.

Oolong A greenish-brown, partially fermented tea.

Organic Grown or raised without chemical growth
enhancers or medications or, for plants, without artificial
fertilizers or pesticides.

Oven Spring The rapid rise of yeast goods in the oven due to
production and expansion of trapped gases as a result of
the oven heat.

Pan Gravy A type of sauce made with the pan drippings of
the meat or poultry it is served with.

Pan-Broil To cook uncovered in a sauté pan or skillet without

Pan-Fry To cook in a moderate amount of fat in an uncovered

(en) Papillote (on poppy yote) Wrapped in paper or foil
for cooking so that the food is steamed in its own

Parboil To cook partially in a boiling or simmering liquid.

Parcook To partially cook by any method.

Parmentier (par mawn tyay) Garnished with or containing

Pasta General term for any shape of macaroni product or
egg noodles.

Pasteurized Heat-treated to kill bacteria that might cause
disease or spoilage.

Pathogen A bacteria that causes disease.

Pâtissier (pa tees syay) Pastry cook.

Persillade (pear see yahd) A mixture of bread crumbs, parsley,
and garlic, used to coat roast meat items, usually

Pesco-vegetarian Referring to a vegetarian diet that includes

Pigment Any substance that gives color to an item.

Pilaf Rice or other grain product that is first cooked in fat,
then simmered in a stock or other liquid, usually with
onions, seasonings, or other ingredients.

Poach To cook gently in water or another liquid that is hot
but not actually bubbling, about 160° to 180°F (71° to

Poissonier (pwah so nyay) Fish cook.

Polenta Italian-style. cornmeal.

Portion Control The measurement of portions to ensure
that the correct amount of an item is served.

Potentially Hazardous Food A food that provides a good
environment for the growth of hazardous bacteria.

Pot Roast A large cut of meat cooked by braising.

Poulette Allemande sauce flavored with mushrooms, parsley,
and lemon juice.

Poussin A young chicken weighing 1 pound (500 g) or less.

Pozole Whole-grain hominy.

Primal Cut One of the primary divisions of meat quarters,
foresaddles, hindsaddles, and carcasses as they are broken
down into smaller cuts.

Primeur (pree mur) Garnished with fresh spring vegetables
such as carrots, turnips, green beans, peas, cauliflower,
and small potatoes.

Princesse Garnished with asparagus.

Printanière (pran tawn yair) Garnished with fresh spring
vegetables such as carrots, turnips, pearl onions, peas,
green beans, and asparagus.

Prix Fixe (pree fix) French term meaning "fixed price";
referring to a menu offering a complete meal, with a
choice of courses, for one given price.

Process Cheese A product made by grinding and melting
one or more cheeses, blending them with other ingredients,
and pouring the mixture into molds to solidify.

Provençale (pro vawn sal) Garnished with or containing
tomatoes, garlic, parsley, and, sometimes, mushrooms
and olives.

Pullman Loaf A long, rectangular loaf of bread.

Pumpernickel (1) Coarsely ground rye flour. (2) Bread
made with this flour.

Purée (1) A food product that has been mashed or strained
to a smooth pulp. (2) To make such a pulp by mashing or
straining a food.

Quail A small game bird, now domestically raised, usually
weighing 6 ounces (175 g) or less.

Quiche A savory tart or pie consisting of a custard baked in
a pastry shell.

Quick Bread A bread leavened by chemical leaveners or
steam rather than yeast.

Radiation The transfer of energy by waves, such as infrared
or light waves.

Raft The coagulated clearmeat that forms when stock is

Ratatouille (ra ta twee) A Southern French vegetable stew of
onions, tomatoes, zucchini, eggplant, and green peppers.

Ravier (rahv yay) Oval relish dish.

Ravioli Dumplings consisting of filled egg noodles.

Recipe A set of instructions for producing a certain dish.

Reduce To cook by simmering or boiling until quantity is
decreased; often done to concentrate flavors.

Reduction (1) A liquid concentrated by cooking it to evaporate
part of the water. (2) The process of making such a liquid.

Relish A type of appetizer consisting of raw or pickled vegetables.

Ricotta An Italian-style. cheese similar to cottage cheese but
smoother, moister, and sweeter in flavor.

Risotto A moist Italian dish of rice cooked in butter and

Rissolé (riss oh lay) Browned. Often referring to potatoes
cut in small shapes, parboiled, and browned in hot fat.

Roast To cook foods by surrounding them with hot, dry air,
in an oven or on a spit over an open fire.

Roe Fish eggs.

Roesti Potatoes Boiled potatoes that are grated, formed into
small cakes, and pan-fried until crisp.

Rolled-in Dough Dough in which a fat is incorporated into
the dough in many layers by means of a rolling and folding

Roquefort A blue-veined cheese made in Roquefort, France,
from sheep’s milk.

Rotisserie An item of cooking equipment that slowly rotates
meat or other foods in front of a heating element.

Rotisseur (ro tee sur) Cook who prepares roasted, braised,
and broiled meats.

Rough Prep The preliminary processing of ingredients to
the point at which they can be used in cooking.

Roux A cooked mixture of equal parts flour and fat.

Russet Starchy potato often used for baking and deep-frying.

Rye Blend A mixture of rye flour and hard wheat flour.

Sachet (sa shay) A mixture of herbs and spices tied in a
cheesecloth bag.

Salamander Small broiler used primarily for browning or
glazing the tops of certain items.

Salmonella A widespread food-borne disease, spread by
improper food handling and inadequate sanitation.

Sanitize To kill disease-causing bacteria, usually by heat or
by chemical disinfectants.

Saturated Fat A fat that is normally solid at room temperature.

Sauce A flavorful liquid, usually thickened, that is used to
season, flavor, and enhance other foods.

Saucier (so see ay) Sauce cook; prepares sauces and stews
and sautés foods to order.

Sauté To cook quickly in a small amount of fat.

Scampi A kind of shellfish similar to large shrimp. In the
United States, the term is often used for large shrimp,
especially if broiled with garlic butter.

Sear To brown the surface of a food quickly at high temperature.

Semolina A hard, high-protein flour often used for the bestquality
macaroni products.

Set Meal Service Service of a meal at which all the customers
eat at one time.

Shirred Egg Egg baked in a shallow, buttered dish.

Shortening (1) Any fat used in baking to tenderize the product
by shortening gluten strands. (2) A white, tasteless,
solid fat formulated for baking or deep-frying.

Shred To cut into thin but irregular strips, either with the
coarse blade of a grater or with a knife.

Sieve Size Size of individual pieces, usually of canned vegetables.

Simmer To cook in water or other liquid that is bubbling
gently, about 185° to 200°F (85° to 93°C).

Slurry A mixture of raw starch and cold liquid, used for

Small Sauce A sauce made by adding one or more ingredients
to a leading sauce.

Smoke-Roast To cook with dry heat in the presence of wood

Soft-Shell Crab A just-molted crab whose new shell has not
yet hardened.

Solanine A poisonous substance found in potatoes that have
turned green.

Soufflé A light, fluffy baked egg dish consisting of a base
(such as a heavy white sauce) mixed with egg yolks and
flavoring ingredients into which beaten egg whites are
folded just before baking.May be sweet or savory.

Sous Chef (soo shef) Cook who supervises food production
and who reports to the executive chef.

Spelt A type of wheat grain similar to farro.

Spice Any part of a plant, other than the leaves, used
in flavoring foods.

Squab Young, domestically raised pigeon.

Staling The change in texture and aroma of baked goods
due to the loss of moisture by the starch granules.

Standard Breading Procedure The procedure for coating a
food product with bread crumbs (or other crumbs or
meal) by passing it through flour, then egg wash, then

Standardized Recipe A set of instructions describing the
way a particular establishment prepares a particular dish.

Staphylococcus, Staph A bacterium that causes food-borne
disease by producing a toxin or poison in improperly
stored foods.

Static Menu A menu that offers the same dishes every day.
Station Chef Cook in charge of a particular department in a
kitchen or food production facility.

Steam To cook by direct contact with steam.

Stew (1) To simmer a food or foods in a small amount of
liquid that is usually served with the food as a sauce. (2) A
dish cooked by stewing, usually one in which the main
ingredients are cut in small pieces.

Stock A clear, thin (that is, unthickened) liquid flavored
with soluble substances extracted from meat, poultry,
and fish, and their bones, and from vegetables and

Streusel (stroy zel) A crumbly topping for baked goods,
consisting of fat, sugar, and flour rubbed together.

Strong Flour Flour with a high protein or gluten content.

Suprême Sauce A sauce made of chicken velouté and heavy

Surimi A processed seafood product manufactured to
resemble shellfish such as crab.

Sushi Vinegared rice garnished with raw fish or other foods.

Sweat To cook in a small amount of fat over low heat, sometimes

Sweetbreads The thymus gland of calves and young animals,
used as food.

Swiss Steak Beef round steaks braised in brown sauce.

Table d’Hote (tobble dote) (1) Referring to a fixed price
menu with no choices. (2) Referring to a menu on which
prices are listed for complete meals rather than for each
separate item.

Tang The portion of a metal knife blade that is inside the

Tasting Menu A type of fixed price menu designed to showcase
the chef ’s art by presenting a series of small courses.

Tatsoi A leafy vegetable or salad green related to mustard
and watercress.

Temper To raise the temperature of a cold liquid gradually
by slowly stirring in a hot liquid.

Tomalley The liver of lobsters and some other shellfish.

Tournant (toor nawn) Cook who replaces other station
cooks; relief cook or swing cook.

Tournedos (toor nuh doe) A small beef steak cut from the

Treviso A red-leafed relative of radicchio and Belgian endive
with elongated leaves.

Trichinosis A food-borne disease caused by a parasite,
sometimes found in undercooked pork.

Tripe The muscular stomach lining of beef or other meat

Truit au Bleu Poached trout that was alive until cooking
time and that turns blue when cooked in court bouillon.

Trunnion Kettle A steam-jacketed kettle that can be tilted
for emptying.

Truss To tie poultry into a compact shape for cooking.

Univalve A mollusk with a single shell, such as abalone.

Unsaturated Fat A fat that is normally liquid at room temperature.

Variety Meats Various organs, glands, and other meats that
don’t form. a part of the dressed carcass.

Vegan Referring to a vegetarian diet that omits all animal
products, including dairy products and eggs.

Velouté A sauce made by thickening white stock with a roux.

Venison The meat of wild or farm-raised deer.

Vent To allow circulation or escape of a liquid or gas, such as
by setting a pot of hot stock on blocks in a cold water bath
so that the cold water can circulate around the pot.

Viande (vee awnd) French for "meat."

Vin Wine.

Vin Blanc White wine.

Vin Rouge Red wine.

Vinaigrette Dressing or sauce made of oil, vinegar, and flavoring

Vitamin Any of a group of compounds that are present in
foods in very small quantities and that are necessary for
regulating body functions.

Volatile Evaporating quickly when heated.

Wash (1) To brush or coat a food item with a liquid such as
egg wash or milk. (2) The liquid used in this procedure.

Waxy Potato A young potato high in sugar and low in

Weak Flour Flour with a low protein or gluten content.

White Pekin The most common breed of domestic duck in
the United States.

Whitewash A thin mixture or slurry of flour and cold water.

Winterized Oil Vegetable oil that stays clear and liquid when

Wrap A sandwich in which the filling is wrapped, like a
Mexican burrito, in a large flour tortilla or similar flatbread.

Zest The colored part of the peel of citrus fruits.




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