and control — there is now a foundation to support discussion of some
specific elements of food control. This part of the text addresses various
means of implementing the control process in order to guide the actions
of employees who work with food, as well as to control, measure, and judge
food costs and food sales. Our first step is to discuss each of the several
generally accepted steps in the chain of daily events that make up the
foodservice business, from initial purchase of raw materials to the sale of the
products prepared from those materials. Next, we consider techniques for
measuring food costs. Finally, we investigate ways of judging food costs in
relation to food sales and, from those judgments, to suggest approaches to
improving performance. We begin with a discussion of the application of the
control process to food purchasing and receiving.
1. Outline the purchasing process in the operations of foodservice establishments.
2. Describe how quality standards for food purchases are established.
3. List six reasons that standard purchase specifications are important, and provide examples of
specifications for both a perishable and a nonperishable food item.
4. Describe the process used to determine the quantity of perishable food purchased.
5. Determine order quantities using the periodic and perpetual order methods.
6. Discuss the use and benefits of purchase orders.
7. Describe the procedures for purchasing perishable and nonperishable foods at the most favorable
8. List and explain the advantages and disadvantages of centralized purchasing and standing orders.
9. Describe the duties of a receiving clerk, and outline the essential equipment and supplies needed
for proper receiving.
10. List the categories of information contained on an invoice, and explain the invoice ’ s function.
11. List the categories of information contained in the receiving clerk ’ s daily report, and explain the
report ’ s function.
12. Explain the difference between directs and stores, and provide examples of each.
All foodservice businesses, regardless of size or type, have certain processes
in common. Whether the foodservice business is a fast - food restaurant or a
fine - dining establishment, it must purchase supplies from purveyors either
by phone, computer e - mail or Web page, fax, letter, or salesperson who calls
at the establishment. Both types of establishment must receive the supplies
when they arrive, and someone must verify that the quantity, quality, and
price are the same as ordered. The food must be properly put away in dry storage,
refrigerator, or freezer. When needed, the food must be taken from storage
and prepared for customers who order it. Finally, the food must be served to
All foodservice establishments, then, have the following sequence of
6. Selling and serving