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Employees' Performance Appraisals That Work

Halo-or-horns effect A type of rater bias that occurs when the rater allows a
positive attribute (halo) or a negative attribute (horns) to cloud the objectivity
of the overall employee performance appraisal.

Error of central tendency A type of rater bias that occurs when the rater avoids
extremeness such as excellent or poor, preferring to rate an employee’s performance
more toward the middle of the rating scale.

Leniency bias This bias occurs when the rater is not as critical of the employee.

Strictness bias This bias occurs when the rater is too critical of the employee.

Recency effect A type of rater bias that occurs when the rater allows a recent
event—either negative or positive—to cloud the overall objectivity of the employee
performance appraisal.

Rating scale A form or method used to conduct a formal performance evaluation;
the rater normally rates the employee’s performance on a scale of 1 to
5, with 1 being poor and 5 being excellent.

Weighted checklist A form or method used to conduct a formal performance
evaluation in which the rater is required to check off behaviors that apply to
the employee being evaluated.

Forced choice method A form or method used to conduct a formal performance
evaluation in which the rater is required to select a statement or words that
most accurately describe an employee’s job performance. May be used interchangeably
with adjective rating scale.

Adjective rating scale See forced choice.

Critical incidents method A form or method used to conduct a formal performance
evaluation in which the rater is required to maintain a log of positive
and negative employee performance.

Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS) A form or method used to conduct
a formal performance evaluation in which the rater is required to rate the
employee along a continuum using specifically determined job behaviors.

Behavioral frequency scale A form or method used to conduct a formal performance
evaluation in which the rater is required to rate the frequency of
identified job behaviors.

Self-appraisal A form or method used to conduct a formal performance appraisal
in which the employee evaluates his or her own job performance in writing.

Management by objective (MBO) A form or method used to conduct a formal
performance appraisal where the supervisor and the employee jointly review
the job responsibilities, identify the processes and results needed, and then determine
performance standards that will define how well the results are accomplished.

360-degree performance appraisal A performance appraisal method in which
an employee’s performance feedback is provided by the supervisor, coworkers,
customers, and even employees—in the form of a self-evaluation.

Evaluation interview When the supervisor and the employee meet one-on-one
to discuss the employee’s formal performance appraisal.

Tell-and-sell An approach to conducting an evaluation interview in which the
supervisor reviews the employee’s performance appraisal and attempts to
convince the employee to do better.

Tell-and-listen An approach to conducting an evaluation interview in which the
supervisor reviews the employee’s performance appraisal but allows the employee
to provide explanations and defend his or her performance.

Problem solving An approach to conducting an evaluation interview in which
the supervisor reviews the employee’s performance appraisal, identifies problems
that might be interfering with employee performance, and then assists
the employee in devising an action plan to improve performance.

Equal employment laws Federal, state, and local laws that prohibit job discrimination
based on factors such as age, race, sex, religion, national origin,
marital or pregnancy status, or sexual orientation.

Wrongful termination A type of lawsuit that occurs when an employee is discharged
without a proven cause; the employee has the right to sue the employer
for damages such as loss of wage and fringe benefits, and, under
certain circumstances, for punitive damages.

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