American Plan (AP)
A type of room rate which includes the price of the room, breakfast, lunch, and dinner. Also known as full pension.
Accommodation in apartment-style units rather than rooms: with minimum or expanded in-suite cooking facilities. Defined by legislation for licensing and classification purposes.
Available Rooms (suites, beds)
The number of rooms normally available on a day to day basis, LESS those permanently used for some purpose other than guest occupancy.
Average Daily Rate (ADR)
The total room revenue for a given period (day, month to date, month, year to date), divided by the number of rooms occupied for the same period. Frequently used as a measure of economic performance.
Bed and Breakfast (B&B)
A type of room rate which includes the price of the room and breakfast. Also known as Continental Plan.
Historical, classic buildings, remodeled into boutique hotels with usually have less than 30 rooms.
Central Reservation System (CRS/CReS)
The ability of guests to make a reservation for one out of a number of hotels by contacting one agency, contracted by the hotels acting as a group, to operate this "central" reservation service.
An occupied guest room for which no price is charged. This may include a room occupied by a hotel employee.
Customers purchase fee-simple equity in the units - the hotel's guestrooms. Unit owners may live in the hotels permanently or use them as second and third homes. Depending on the hotel's policy, unit owners may rent their units independently or through the management company's rental program and derive income through a revenue-sharing arrangement. Unit owners also incur budgeted maintenance and operating expenses. Depending on the management company, unit owners have varying degrees of access to their hotel's amenities and services.
Credit Card Commissions
A fee paid to credit card companies based upon a contracted percentage of credit card charges accepted.
The newest entrant to lodging, this niche most closely resembles country clubs in ownership structure. While developers of destination clubs expect to branch out into other price segments, for now this niche targets the most affluent of travelers. Customers pay initiation fees that can run as high as $500,000 and annual dues running as high as $25,000. In return, customers get to stay for weeks at a time in multi-million dollar residences and villas in prime urban and resort locations and enjoy a full range of amenities and services.
Core physical features: accommodation, restaurants, bars, and meeting rooms.
Frequent Independent Traveler (FIT)
Designation which applies to visitors who arrive on their own as opposed to being a part of an organized group.
The right to market a service and/or product often exclusive for a specified area, as granted by the manufacturer, developer or distributor in return for a fee: prevalent in the fast food industry but increasingly adopted within the hotel community.
An office usually situated in the lobby, always located inside the main entrance, whose primary function is to control the sale of guest rooms, provide keys, mail, information service for guests, maintain guest accounts, render bills, receive payments as well as providing information to other departments within the hotel.
An itemized record of a guest's charges and credits, which is maintained in the front office until departure. Also referred to as a guest bill, guest folio, and/or guest statement.
Not to be confused with "amenities", this is the term given to the range of disposable items provided in guest room bathrooms and includes such items as shampoo, lotion, conditioner, soap, toothpaste, toothbrush, shower caps, etc… The cost of these items are built into room rate.
Guest Check (Restaurant)
The invoice presented to restaurant and bar patrons for food and beverage consumed during a visit. Also referred to as a waiter's check or restaurant check.
A record maintained for each guest who has stayed at the hotel with a separate entry for each visit and details of pertinent preferences. This is a valuable reference tool for reservations, marketing, and credit departments. Guest histories are now more readily available through the increased utilization of computers and technology.
A personal residence with a small amount of overnight accommodation sometimes limited by legislation and residence constraints. Typically provides breakfast which is included within the room rate but no other meals. Not licensed to provide alcoholic beverages commercially.
Guest Service Directory
A documented listing of all of the features of a hotel together with general and pertinent information about the community within which the property is located. Directories are usually provided within each guest room.
High (Peak) Season / Shoulder Season
The period of consecutive months during which optimum revenues, room/suite occupancy and average room rates are generated. In the Rajasthan this is generally October through March.
Minimum number of available rooms, services, and amenities, usually defined by legislation for licensing and classification purposes as well as eligibility for fiscal incentives in some jurisdictions. May provide food and beverage services on site but not always within the accommodation building(s): usually by in-house staff but occasionally through an outside food and beverage contractor. May or may not provide a range of recreation and other amenities on site or by arrangement with others off site. Includes motor hotel, resort hotel or resort, and commercial hotel.
An individual or firm with the responsibility to facilitate market accessibility to the hotel property by the travel trade.
Ingress and Egress
Ingress/Egress relates to the Civil Authority coverage part of the Business Income/EE forms. If one is unable to enter or exit by direction of civil authority.
Statutes that limit the common law liability of innkeepers.
Hotels that are identified because they have state of the art technology systems for their operations. These hotels have replaced the traditional systems to reduce their energy cost and usually have integrated systems which join analog and digital systems to achieve an effective communication in their hotels. The return on investment is reflected in the energy-cost savings and the comfort they provide to their guests.
Limited Service Hotels
Brand hotels with franchise memberships of recognized hotels, built within limited areas without a restaurant. These hotels are located near business areas such as industrial parks, cities, and airport terminals.
Loss of Attraction
"Loss of Attraction" falls under the Business Income and Extra Expense coverage form although coverage is rarely included as it is hard to prove. For example, if a fire occurred at a hotel in Las Vegas, there may be other hotels in the surrounding area that will have lost income as a result of the reduction in tourism. For those hotels that have not suffered direct damage to the property, Business Income claims would fall under “Loss of Attraction.” Loss of Attraction coverage is not common and can be difficult to identify the loss resulting from a disaster and that which could have resulted from poor management or other uninsured factors.
Physical damage to insured property is the primary trigger for business interruption claims; however, additional triggers of coverage outside of physical damage include acts of civil authority, ingress/egress, contingent business interruption and loss of attraction.
Low (off-peak) Season
The consecutive months during which the lowest revenues, room/suite occupancy and average room rates are generated. In the Rajasthan this is generally April to September.
A specially designed small floor mounted refrigerator containing a variety of beverages and snacks located in guest rooms, with individual guest room key access. This amenity serves as a more credible and profitable substitute for room service.
Manager On Duty.
Overnight accommodation originally targeted to automobile travelers and therefore, situated at roadside locations. A more contemporary definition would be the provision of accommodation only, with no other amenities and services provided by the motel.
Occupancy (Occ. %) (Occ Rate)
The percentage of available rooms occupied for a given period of consecutive time. This figure is calculated by dividing the number of rooms occupied for a period by the number of rooms available for the same period and is expressed as a percentage.
A situation in which more room reservations have been taken by a hotel than what the hotel is able to accommodate. Hotels that use overbooking as a policy are increasingly being targeted by tour wholesalers and operators in an attempt to better control and minimize the serious adverse marketing effects which overbooking has for all stakeholders.
The name given to an assembly of components under a one price system. Typically, the core package price would include: return transportation, ground transfers, baggage handling, accommodation, one or more meals per day, and applicable taxes. Car rentals, recreation and entertainment and gratuities may also be included, but are more often supplementary to the core package price.
The full, undiscounted published room rate (price).
Registration Card (Reg. Card)
A form on which arriving guests record their names, addresses, and other details including mode of transportation used, nationality, purpose of visit (usually business or pleasure), method of payment, and length of stay. A space is also provided for signature, room rate and room number. Additional questions may be included as a part of the hotel's market research platform.
Resort Hotels & Spas
A hotel that caters primarily to vacationers and tourist and typically offers more recreational amenities and services, in a more aesthetically pleasing setting, than other hotels. These hotels are located in attractive and natural tourism destinations and their clientele are groups and couples that like adventure with sophistication and comfort. The attractions vary depending on the region and some might offer golf, tennis, scuba diving and, depending on the natural surrounding, may also arrange other recreational activities.
Revenue Per Available Room (REVPAR)
Revpar is the key measure in the performance of the core business of hotels-selling rooms. Revenue per available room (revpar) is the key indicator of performance for hotels and can be broken down into two parts reflecting occupancy and rates:
Revpar = occupancy (percentage of available rooms occupied) × average room rate per night.
Trends in revpar are very important. Revpar can be used to compare companies but only if they have broadly similar hotels - i.e. similarly priced in similar locations. This is less unlikely than it may seem as most hotels companies give regional breakdowns of revpar and this can be compared.
A predetermined number of rooms reserved in advance for group (conference, tour) use.
Food and beverage delivered and served in a guest room.
Safety Deposit Boxes
Individual boxes provided for the safekeeping of guest valuables. Located either in a central, secure, and supervised location or in individual guest rooms.
The period between peak and low season.
Five Star Hotel
Luxury hotels; most expensive hotels/resorts in the world; numerous extras to enhance the quality of the client's stay (for example: some have private golf courses and even a small private airport).
Four Star Hotel
First class hotels; expensive (by middle-class standards); has all of the previously mentioned services; has many "luxury" services (for example: massages or a health spa).
Three Star Hotel
Middle class hotels; moderately priced; has daily maid service, room service, and may have dry-cleaning, Internet access, and a swimming pool.
Two Star Hotel
Budget hotels; slightly more expensive; usually has maid service daily.
One Star Hotel
Low budget hotels; inexpensive; may not have maid service or room service.
No Category Hotels
These hotels include motels, cottages, bungalows and others with limited services. Nevertheless, these hotels represent 41% of the total hotel market share.
Timeshare (Vacation Ownership)
A marketing and equity financing concept which permits participants to enjoy vacation accommodation for a fixed, one time amount for life, or shorter contracted period. According to the American Resort Development Association (ARDA), timeshare consumers make a one-time purchase of furnished resort accommodations, at a fraction of whole ownership costs, and pay an annual maintenance fee. Each condominium, or unit, of a vacation ownership resort is divided into intervals, either by the week or points equivalent, which are sold separately.
The accommodations are priced according to a variety of factors, including size of the unit, resort amenities, location, and season. The purchaser owns the vacation accommodations, but only for the amount of time he or she plans to use it - typically one or two weeks each year. With time-share, the owner has all the benefits of a vacation home without the year-round costs. From its origin, the idea behind time-sharing was to give people the ability to purchase their future vacation - at current prices.
Fractionals are a variation of timeshare in which the purchaser owns longer intervals, from four to 12 weeks a year. Costs of fractionals are significantly higher, ranging to more than $600,000. Major branded hotel companies participate in fractional timeshare, though not to the extent of independent operators.
An organization or individual who actively manages and escorts tours and tour packages to FIT and group visitors.
Guests pay nightly rates for single rooms or suites and have full access to the hotels' range of amenities and services. Rates begin at "rack," but vary widely, based on time of week and season and nearby events and attractions.
This refers to the transportation of visitors between their point of arrival and selected hotel, and back again on departure day.
Wake Up call
A call made by front office, usually by telephone, to a guest room at the time requested by a room guest to be wakened.
Walk In Guest
Who checks-in without an advance reservation.
When a hotel is overbooked and a guest room is not available for a confirmed guest, the hotel has “walk the guest” to a nearby hotel. This usually includes paying for transportation to the hotel and covering any difference in the room rate at the hotel the guest was “walked” to.
ALA CARTE MENU:
A food and beverage menu in which each item is listed and priced separately.
An aisle that is a necessary part of an accessible parking space. The aisle allows disabled individuals with a device, such as a wheelchair, to enter and exit vehicles and travel to the sidewalk or building entrance. See Accessible Parking Space.
ACCESSIBLE PARKING SPACE:
A parking space, specially designed for disabled persons, that meets or exceeds the requirements of the people with Disabilities Act. It should have a minimum width of 13 feet (4 meters)--8 feet (2.4 meters) for the vehicle and 5 feet (1.5 meters) for an access aisle.
A route that connects the accessible parking area to an accessible entrance of the building the parking lot serves. An accessible route should be a minimum of 36 inches (91 centimeters) wide and have no abrupt surface transitions (from sidewalks to streets, for example) or obstructions that would present hazards to a visually impaired person.
Sound absorption or sound reflection quality of certain materials, usually in ceilings, walls, or floors.
Synthetic material used in making fabric and molded transparent fixtures or surfaces.
A form of carbon capable of absorbing odors and vapors. It is used in various filter systems.
ACTUAL BEVERAGE COST PERCENTAGE:
Net beverage cost divided by total bar sales.
AD VALOREM TAX:
A tax based on the assessed value of the asset itself, usually a fixed percentage of the value.
Anything added to a product that is not strictly necessary for making the product, but which facilitates the production or enhances certain qualities considered desirable by the producer. For example, brewers use additives to produce a more stable and softer foam, greater clarity, and other qualities.
Guestrooms located side by side without a connecting door between them.
Natural products--most often grain products such as rice, corn, and wheat flakes--added to malted barley before fermentation. Soybean flakes, potato starch, and even sugar are sometimes used as adjuncts.
A microorganism that requires free oxygen to reproduce.
Spoilage of meat tissue in an oxygen environment. Bacteria are responsible for the greatest amount of aerobic meat spoilage.
In meal planning, a pleasing combination obtained by making use of the colors, textures, and flavors of foods. AFFILIATE RESERVATION SYSTEM:
A hotel chain's reservation system in which all participating properties are contractually related. Each property is represented in the computer system database and is required to provide room availability data to the reservation center on a timely basis.
A hotel that is a member of a chain, franchise, or referral system. Membership provides special advantages, particularly a national reservation system.
The philosophy that assumes that business has a responsibility to serve society.
A poisonous mycotoxin produced by the mold Aspergillus flavus, which is found worldwide and grows on nuts, corn, wheat, and other grains. Aflatoxin may be found in finished products like bread and peanut butter. Ingestion of aflatoxin usually only causes low-grade fever in humans, but it can produce cancer in trout, rats, and ducks and has been linked to some cases of liver cancer in humans.
A process in the production of alcoholic beverages in which spirits and wines are stored in casks or barrels after fermentation, but before bottling. Its purpose is to improve quality by allowing further chemical reaction to occur with a small amount of air.
AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome):
Incurable disease caused by a retro-virus that can be transmitted through blood or semen.
Ventilation rate in terms of room or building volume. Usually expressed as air changes per hour.
AIR HANDLING UNIT:
An all-air HVAC system consisting of coils (through which steam/hot water or chilled water is circulated from central boilers and chillers), filters, fresh air intakes, exhaust air discharges, and sometimes humidification equipment.
Airplane crew members and passengers who need emergency accommodations.
A hotel located near a public airport. Although airport hotels vary widely in size and service levels, they are generally full-service and are more likely than other hotels to have in-room movies, computerized property management systems, and call accounting systems.
ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGE MENU:
A menu that lists cocktails, wines, and other alcoholic beverages an operation offers to guests. Alcoholic beverages can be listed on a separate menu or included on the regular menu. Restaurants with a large selection of wines may have a separate wine list. Many beverage menus also include no- or low-alcohol drinks.
A brew that is top-fermented at high temperatures and contains more hops than do most beers, resulting in a characteristic bitter taste.
A tour offering all or most services--transportation, lodging, meals, sight-seeing, and so on--for a pre-established price. The terms "all-expense" and "all-inclusive" are much misused. Virtually no tour rate covers everything. The terms and conditions of a tour contract should specify exactly what is covered.
A term used to describe a person who is more adventurous and willing to travel to exotic destinations, and who travels more frequently and by more modern or unusual forms of transportation. Allocentric travelers are apt to spend more money than psychocentric travelers. Compare Psychocentric.
A hotel that features suites. A suite is an accommodation larger than the typical hotel room, with a living space separate from the bedroom. A suite can also have a kitchenette or whirlpool.
A brew much like British ale, named from the German word meaning "old," indicating it is made by the ancient method of top-fermenting.
ALTERNATE OPERATOR SERVICE (AOS):
A long-distance telephone operator-service provider that supplies its own operator but leases a network from an other common carrier (OCC), such as MCI or US Sprint.
Smaller scale tourism in terms of the number of tourists and the dimensions of tourism development. Sometimes called responsible or green tourism.
(1) A feeling about or an identity for an establishment created by the combination of decor, lighting, furnishings, and other factors.
(2) Applied to environments, a feeling or mood associated with a particular place, person, or thing; an atmosphere.
AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE:
The surrounding inside air temperature, usually considered ideal for human comfort at 65° to 75°F (18° to 24°C).
Lighting that provides atmosphere and holds together varied elements of the decor.
Service or item offered to guests or placed in guestrooms for the comfort and convenience of guests, and at no extra cost. Examples are various guest services (such as in-room entertainment systems, automatic check-out, free parking, concierge services, and multilingual staff) in addition to an array of personal bathroom items offered by most hotels and motels. Amenities are designed to increase a hotel's appeal, enhance a guest's stay, and encourage guests to return.
AMERICAN HOTEL & MOTEL ASSOCIATION (AH&MA):
A federation of state and regional hotel associations that offers benefits and services to hospitality properties and suppliers. AH&MA reviews proposed legislation affecting hotels, sponsors seminars and group study programs, conducts research, and publishes Lodging magazine. The Educational Institute of AH&MA is the world's largest developer of hospitality industry training materials, including textbooks, videotapes, seminars, courses, and software.
A room rate that includes three meals.
Part of a system that supports the use of hand-held server terminals. Antenna units relay signals from hand-held terminals to a radio base station.
A wine that is traditionally served before a meal as an appetizer or cocktail. Aperitif wines are often fortified and herb-flavored. Vermouth, for instance, is both fortified and flavored with herbal ingredients.
Literally, "name controlled." A wine with this designation on the label belongs to the highest classification of French wines and is strictly regulated by an agency of the French government.
Smooth, light, dry, clear liquor with the flavor of caraway; like Kummell, but much drier. National beverage of the Scandinavian countries. A dill-flavored aquavit is also available.
Water-bearing stratum of permeable rock, sand, or gravel located beneath the earth's surface. See also Groundwater.
A great grape brandy of France, probably second only to Cognac. Armagnac is produced in a legally delineated region in southwest France. It is dry, less delicate, and less ethereal than Cognac, but compensates with a fuller body.
Light other than sunlight.
A process used for food products that are particularly sensitive to heat; it involves the separate sterilization of containers (using hydrogen peroxide) and contents, and uses more heat for substantially shorter periods of time than conventional canning. Once sterilized, the contents are placed into the containers and hermetically sealed in a sterile environment. This process conserves nutrients, color, taste, odor, and texture but is relatively expensive.
A guestroom floor configuration in which rooms are laid out off a single-loaded corridor encircling a multistory lobby space; also the multistory lobby space, usually with a skylight.
In electronic communications, a feature of sophisticated modems that enables a user to place a call to a pre-specified phone number at an exact time, or set up the modem in a ready state to receive incoming calls.
The chemical breakdown of food products caused by substances (primarily enzymes) within the food.
AUTOMATIC FORM NUMBER READER (AFNR):
A feature of a guest check printer that facilitates order entry procedures; instead of a server manually inputting a guest check's serial number to access the account, a bar code imprinted on the guest check presents the check's serial number in a machine-readable format.
AUTOMATIC IDENTIFICATION OF OUTWARD DIALING:
A feature of a call accounting system that immediately identifies the extension from which an outgoing call is placed.
AUTOMATIC ROOM/RATE ASSIGNMENT:
Computerized assignment made through algorithms based on parameters specified by hotel management officials. Rooms may be selected according to predetermined floor zones (similar to the way in which guests are seated in a dining room), or according to an index of room usage and depreciation.
AUTOMATIC ROUTE SELECTION:
A feature of a call accounting system that provides the capability of connecting with a variety of common carriers.
AUTOMATIC SLIP FEED (ASF):
A feature of a guest check printer that prevents overprinting of items and amounts on guest checks.
AUTOMATIC SPELL CHECK:
A computer program that helps users proofread documents by automatically checking for spelling errors. The words in the document are electronically compared with entries in the spell checker's dictionary. When a word which appears in the document does not appear in the program's dictionary, it is generally highlighted on the display screen so the operator can correct it.
AUTOMATIC/COMPUTERIZED BAR SYSTEM:
Beverage dispensing system that improves portion control, inventory control, and quality control, as well as the accuracy of guest checks and the adherence to standard recipes.
A secondary supply of heat provided by a standby heating system or fuel supply when the primary heating system or fuel supply cannot supply heat (or adequate heat).
A ratio that shows rooms sold over a fixed period of time as a percentage of total available rooms in a property over the same period of time.
AVERAGE OCCUPANCY PER ROOM:
A ratio that shows the average number of paid guests for each room sold. Calculated by dividing number of paid room guests by number of rooms sold. Measures management's ability to use the lodging facilities.
AVERAGE ROOM RATE:
A ratio that indicates average room rate, and to what extent rooms are being up-sold or discounted; calculated by dividing rooms revenue by number of rooms sold. Also called average daily rate or ADR.
ADSL: Short for asymmetric digital subscriber line. A compression technology that
allows voice, data and one-way, full-motion video to be delivered at a speed of 1.5
Mbps over existing copper feeder, distribution and subscriber lines.
Affiliate Program: A network of businesses placing banners or links on each other’s
Web sites promoting each other’s brands and products. Customers are referred to
one another in exchange for a sales commission.
Auction: A web site that facilitates transactions among consumers based on the
Authentication: The process of identifying a person usually based on username and
password. Authentication ensures a person is who they claim to be, but says nothing
of the access rights of the individual.
Authorization: The process of giving individuals access based on their identity.
B2B: Short for business-to-business e-commerce.
B2C: Short for business-to-consumer e-commerce.
Bandwidth: The amount of data that can be transmitted in a fixed amount of time.
Banner Advertisement: The “click here” message you see at the top of Web pages
that tempts customers into visiting web sites.
Banner Exchange Network: A network of web sites placing banner advertisements
on each other’s sites.
Bricks-and-Mortar (B&M): A physical store.
Brochureware: A web site with information about a company and its products or
Browser: The software you need to travel the Internet.
C2C: Short for consumer-to-consumer e-business, the use of auctions to allow
consumers to bid on products.
Chargeback: A credit card purchase is cancelled by the cardholder. In e-commerce,
cardholders can chargeback a purchase if they did not sign the sales draft and have
a complaint with the product. Cardholders can chargeback any Internet purchase
for up to 180 days from the date of purchase.
Clickthrough: The act of a potential customer clicking on a banner advertisement to
reach the marketer’s site.
Clicks-and-Mortar (C&M): The integration between a virtual store (clicks) and a
physical store (mortar).
Connectivity: The idea of a fusion of computing and communications.
Convergence: The coming together of two distinct technologies.
Cookie: A unique identifier sent to your computer by a web server and stored on
your hard disk.
Data Mining: The process of taking raw information that your customers have
provided and turning it into information that can assist in sale segmentation,
product customization, and/or customer.
Digital Certificate: An attachment to an electronic message used for security
purposes. The most common use of a digital certificate is to verify that a user
sending a message is who he or she claims to be, and to provide the receiver with
the means to encode a reply.
Disintermediation: Removing the middleman. The term describes Internet-based
businesses that use the World Wide Web to sell products directly to customers
rather than going through traditional retail channels. By eliminating the
middleman, companies can sell their products cheaper and faster.
Domain Name: A web site’s address on the Internet.
DSL: Short for digital subscriber lines. The use of sophisticated modulation schemes
to pack data onto copper wires. DSL offers speeds up to 32 Mbps for downstream
traffic, and between 32 Kbps to 1 Mbps for upstream traffic.
E-business: Short for electronic business, conducting business on the Internet.
E-commerce: Short for electronic commerce. Incorporating all elements of
commerce online including sales, inventory management, and human resources.
EDI: Short for Electronic Data Interchange, the transfer of data between different
companies using networks, like the Internet.
EFT: Short for Electronic Funds Transfer, a specific example of how banks use
electronic data interchange to transfer funds.
Electronic Commerce: Incorporating all elements of commerce online including
sales, inventory management, and human resources.
Electronic Mail: An electronic marketplace where stores pay rent to be associated
and therefore generate traffic.
E-mail: Short for electronic mail, the transmission of messages over communications
networks. The messages can be notes entered from the keyboard or electronic files
stored on disk.
Encryption: the translation of data into secret code. Encryption is the most effective
way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a
secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it.
FAQ: Short for frequently asked questions. A FAQ is a document that answers
questions about some technical topic.
Firewall: Software that keeps unauthorized people outside a network. It can also
be used to prohibit employees from browsing the web.
FTP: Short for File Transfer Protocol, the protocol used on the Internet for sending
Future Consideration Sale: A sale where the product will not be shipped or used by
the customer within seven days of the order.
Hit: The retrieval of any item, like a page or a graphic, from a web server. For
example, when a visitor calls up a web page with four graphics, there are five hits,
one for the page and four for the graphics.
Hosting Company: Companies providing the dedicated high-speed communications
line, support staff, equipment, and software. By outsourcing the technical
operations of e-commerce sites, businesses can jump online quicker and cheaper.
HTML: Short for HyperText Markup Language. The language that allows users to
communicate with web servers and browsers.
HTTP: Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the
World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and
what action Web servers and browsers should take in response to various
commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends
an HTTP command to the web server directing it to fetch and transmit the
requested web page.
Hypertext: A system of linking electronic documents. Click on a word or phrase, and
you are taken to another page of information about that idea.
Internet Access Provider: Another term for an Internet Service Provider.
Internet Payment Service: A company that allows online stores to accept credit cards
without a merchant account. In addition to granting merchant status to online
stores, they act as transaction-processing companies, providing secure real-time
credit card authorization services to online stores.
ISDN: Short for Integrated Services Digital Network. An international
communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone
lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps.
ISP: Short for Internet Service Provider.
Internet Service Provider (ISP): A company that provides access to the Internet. For a
monthly fee, the service provider gives you a software package, username,
password and access phone number. Equipped with a modem, you can then log on
to the Internet and browse the World Wide Web and USENET, and send and receive
Link Sharing: A network of web sites placing links on each other’s sites.
Merchant Account: A bank account that allows your online store to accept credit
cards. You need to have a merchant account for each credit card that you want to
Meta Tag: A special HTML tag that provides information about a web page. Many
search engines use meta tags to build their listings.
Modem: Short for modulator-demodulator. An electronic device that allows
computers to communicate over standard telephone lines.
Online: Connected to the Internet via a modem.
Online store: A company offering its products and services to its customers over the
Permission Marketing: Customers volunteer to be marketed to, ensuring an
interested audience of consumers.
Plug-in: An application that works seamlessly with a web browser.
Portal: A web site providing all-in-one entry to the Internet. It provides search
engines, E-mail, chat rooms, free personal web pages, shopping and guides.
Search Directory: A program that searches a directory of keywords that have been
registered with each web site.
Search Engine: A program that searches web sites for specified keywords and
returns a list of the documents where the keywords were found.
SET: Short for Secure Electronic Transaction, a standard that enables secure credit
card transactions on the Internet. By employing digital signatures, SET enables
merchants to verify that buyers are who they claim to be. It protects buyers by
providing a mechanism for their credit card number to be transferred directly to the
credit card issuer for verification and billing without the merchant being able to see
Shopping Cart: A shopping cart is a piece of software that acts as an online store’s
catalog and ordering process. Typically, a shopping cart is the interface between a
company’s web site and its deeper infrastructure, allowing consumers to select
merchandise, review what they have selected; make necessary modifications or
additions, and purchase the merchandise. Shopping carts can be sold as
independent pieces of software so companies can integrate them into their own
unique online solution, or they can be offered as a feature from a service that will
create and host a company’s e-commerce site.
Site Optimization: Providing search-engine friendly web sites to search engines and
Spam: Electronic junk mail.
Spamming: The sending of electronic junk mail.
Speech Recognition: The use of computer systems to recognize spoken words. Voice
recognition implies only that the computer can take dictation. Natural language
processing recognizes human languages.
SSL: Short for Secure Sockets Layer, a protocol developed for transmitting private
documents, like credit card numbers, via the Internet. SSL works by using a private
key to encrypt data that’s transferred over the SSL connection.
Storefront Software: Software that allows you to create your online store by filling
out a template.
T1: A dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of 1.544 Mbits per second.
T3: A dedicated phone connection supporting data rates of about 43 Mbps.
Template Service: By simply filling out a series of forms, a template package creates
a store. Template services provide a relatively inexpensive solution for small
businesses that want a good-looking store but do not need full control over every
aspect of the site’s merchandising and technical capabilities. Templates are more
appropriate for small-scale stores that do not feature an extensive number of
products for sale.
Traffic: The number of hits a web site receives.
Transaction Processing Company: A company that can securely process credit card
orders and authorize them in real time over the Internet.
URL: Short for Uniform Resource Locator, the global address of documents and
other resources on the World Wide Web. The first part of the address indicates
what protocol to use, and the second part specifies the IP address or the domain
name where the resource is located.
Viral Marketing: Customers pass information about services to those close to them,
including friends, neighbours, and co-workers. In frictionless viral marketing, the
customer spreads word simply by using the service. In active viral marketing, a
customer actively participates in recruiting new customers.
Virtual Mall: An electronic marketplace where stores pay rent to become members
and therefore benefit from the mall’s traffic.
Virtual Web Host: A company that provides web hosting services to businesses with
the condition that the host’s name forms part of the address
Virtual Web Server: A company that provides web hosting services and allows each
business to have its won distinct domain name
Web: Short for World Wide Web. A global online information repository running on
top of the Internet.
Web Hosting Company: Companies providing the dedicated high-speed
communications line, support staff, equipment, and software. By outsourcing the
technical operations of e-commerce sites, businesses can jump online quicker and
less expensively. The benefits of web-hosting services include reduced costs,
increased functionality, and technical support.
Website: A site or location on the World Wide Web. Each web site contains a home
page, which is the first document users see when they enter the site. The site might
also contain additional documents and files.
Wireless Network: A network that uses high-frequency radio waves rather than
wires to communicate.
FAMILIARIZATION (FAM) TOUR:
A reduced-rate, often complimentary,trip or tour offered to travel agents, wholesalers, incentive travelplanners, travel writers, broadcasters, or photographers to promote ahotel or a destination.
FAMILY LIFE CYCLE:
A series of stagesused to distinguish between types of travelers; variables used todetermine family life cycle stages are age, marital status, andpresence and ages of children.
A special room rate for parents and children occupying one guestroom.
Atable service style in which food is placed on large platters or inlarge bowls which are taken to the tables by servers. Guests pass thefood around their table and serve themselves.
Thesingle largest segment of the food service industry; composed ofcommercial establishments that offer drive-through and/or counterservice to customers.
A step, prior todistillation, during which a mash consisting of crushed grain, grapes,sugar cane, or other plant product and water is injected with yeasts.The yeasts convert the product into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxidegas. The gas drifts off, and the remaining mixture contains a fairlylow level of alcohol, which can be extracted and concentrated throughdistillation. Distilled beverage alcohol can be derived from any plantor plant product containing either fermentable sugars or starch thatcan be converted to such sugars.
FERMENTED IN THE BOTTLE:
Thedesignation appearing on a bottle of champagne or sparkling wine whenthe transfer process is used; that is, the second fermentation takesplace "in the bottle" as the label says, but the sparkling wine is thentransferred to a vat under pressure for settling, clarifying, andfining, and then returned under pressure to the original bottles.Compare Fermented in this Bottle.
FERMENTED IN THIS BOTTLE:
Thedesignation appearing on a bottle of champagne or sparkling wine whenthe traditional champagne method is used; that is, the re-fermentationtakes place in the bottle in which the champagne or sparkling wine issold. Compare Fermented in the Bottle.
A liquid appliedto floors that dries to a protective coating and enhances theappearance of the floor. Finishes come in wax-based or polymer types.
FINISHED PRODUCT CATERING DELIVERY:
Home delivery catering services.
Adishwashing machine in which dishes are placed on a conveyor made ofpegs or bars and are moved through several washing and rinsingchambers.
Casino employee who supervises dealers and is trained to resolve disputes and watch for cheaters.
Stepin the laundry wash cycle that dissolves and dilutes water-solublesoils to reduce the soil load for the upcoming suds step. Items aregenerally flushed at medium temperatures and high water levels.
A travel trend in which tourists fly to a destination to begin a cruise, generally as part of a travel package.
FLYING FOOD SHOW:
Aprocedure for delivering cooked menu items to guests as soon as thefood is ready. The first server to arrive at the pickup point deliversthe menu items that are ready for service; can only be implemented iforder tickets show which guest at which table is to receive each order.
The guest's bill that all hotel and incidental charges are posted to.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE DIVISION:
Thedivision in a hospitality organization that is responsible forpreparing and serving food and beverages within the organization orproperty. Also includes catering and room service.
FOOD AND BEVERAGE MANAGER:
A person who plans, directs, organizes, and controls all phases of the food and beverage departments of an establishment.
Adry food preservation method, thought to be the oldest; effectivebecause it reduces the aw of food and thus inhibits microbial activity.Four types are sun drying, mechanical drying, freeze-drying, and dryingduring smoking.
A type of foodborne illnesscaused by bacteria or viruses in food that are consumed with the foodand later reproduce inside the body. With food infection, it is thegerms themselves--not the toxins they produce--that cause the illness.Compare Food Poisoning.
Illness that occurswhen germs get into food and produce toxic waste products. With foodpoisoning, it is the toxin--not the germs themselves--that produces theillness. Compare Food Infection.
FOREIGN INDEPENDENT TOUR (FIT):
Atour created for individuals or families who walk into a travel agencyand tell an agent what country or area they would like to visit andwhat they would like to see and do there.
Wineto which alcohol is added, usually during fermentation, resulting in awine with a minimum of 15% and maximum of 24% alcohol by volume.
A beverage system in which the bartender simply pours an unmeasured amount into a glass.
A reach-in or walk-in food storage unit that maintains a temperature of 0°F (-18°C) or less.
Anelegant, complex type of dining service in which entrées are preparedat tableside by service employees. Used only in gourmet,high-check-average dining operations. Also known as tableside or cartservice.
(a) where guests may sit down and order and consume beverages and
(b)that serves as a work space for the bartender. The front bar is dividedinto two functional areas: the backbar (the back wall, for storage anddisplay) and the underbar (the bartender's main working area). CompareService Bar.
The focal point of activity within thehotel, usually prominently located in the hotel lobby. Guests areregistered, assigned rooms, and checked out at the front desk.
FRONT DESK AGENT:
Ahotel employee whose responsibilities center on the registrationprocess, but also typically include preregistration activities, roomstatus coordination, and mail, message, and information requests.
FRONT OF THE HOUSE:
Thefunctional areas of a hotel or restaurant in which employees haveextensive guest contact, such as the front desk (in hotels) and thedining room(s).
A hotel's command post forprocessing reservations, registering guests, settling guest accounts,and checking guests in and out.
A wine bottle thatusually contains approximately 25 ounces (750 ml), which couldadequately serve three to four persons, but is not too much for twopeople over the course of a full meal.
FULL BOTTLE SLIP:
Acontrol tool used in maintaining bar par. When a full bottle isordered, management or the point-of-sale system issues a full bottleslip to the bartender to exchange for the full bottle. To requisitionthese bottles (since there is no empty), the bartender attaches thefull bottle slips to the daily bar requisition form.
A restaurant that
(a) has more than a dozen or so main-course items on the menu, and
(b) cooks to order.
A travel agency that handles all types of travel for consumers.
Ahotel with a full range of servives service and amenities which mayinclude some or all; onsite restaurant and lounge, meeting facility,pool, fiteness center, business center, etc. CompareEconomy/Limited-Service Hotel.
(1) Decorative edible items used to ornament or enhance the eye appeal of another food item.
(2) To add such a decorative item to food.
The chief operating officer of a hotel or a restaurant.
A blend of wines that resembles a particular wine of an already established region; a California "Burgundy," for instance.
Acompounded spirit (the basic product flavored by juniper berries)usually classified as dry or heavy; dry gins are light in flavor andbody, while heavy gins are heavily flavored and full-bodied.
Neutral brandy with the true flavor and aroma of ginger root and other aromatics. Light brown in color.
In the distillation of spirits, a device at the top of the still through which the alcohol vapors are passed to pick up flavor.
An area on which a bartender or server can set glasses while pouring drinks.
GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (GDS):
Anetwork of internet reservation systems that provide a central placewhere travelers and travel agents can check availability and reservetravel related products like hotels, airline, car rentals, cruises,rail. Formed and managed by the airline industry and includes systemlike Sabre, Apollo, Amedaus, Pegasus.
GRAIN NEUTRAL SPIRIT:
Acolorless, odorless, and tasteless distilled spirit made from a grainmash; it is produced by continuous distillation until it reaches 190proof. During distillation a number of harsh congeners are removed.
GRAND TOUR, THE:
Anextended trip across the European continent that served as part of theeducation of young British aristocrats. A typical tour began in Englandand had the major cultural cities of Italy as its destination. In itsearly years, a tour could last as long as 40 months. By the end of theGrand Tour era, the age of the traveler had increased, and the lengthof the tour decreased; individuals traveled more for pleasure than foran extended educational tour. The Grand Tour era lasted from about 1500to 1820.
Brandy distilled from the pulpy residue--thegrape pomace--of the wine press. In France, this brandy is called Marc(Eau de Vie de Marc).
Reused or recycled water. It isrelatively clean wastewater, such as that produced from certain laundrycycles and effluent from wastewater treatment systems, that can be usedto supply needs for landscape water and other non-potable uses.
Bright red flavoring syrup blending the tastes of pomegranate, strawberry, and raspberry.
A cooking appliance with a one-piece polished steel, chrome-plated, or cast-iron plate heated by burners underneath it.
A gambler who wagers a relatively small amount of money and does not gamble regularly.
GROUP PICK-UP :
The guestrooms that are actually rented by a group that are help in a Group Reservation.
Ablock of multiple guestrooms that are being held under an indivual orbusiness' name at a particular hotel for a specific date or range ofdates. Generally used for conventions, conferences, meetings,receptions, weddings, etc.
GUEST COMMENT CARD:
Shortquestionnaires that lodging properties and food service establishmentsask their guests to fill out. Guest comments are used by the propertyto define current markets and to improve the operation.
GUEST HISTORY CARD:
A record of the guest's visits including rooms assigned, rates, special needs, and credit rating.
GUEST HISTORY FILE:
A file containing guest history cards. It is maintained for marketing purposes and is referred to for return visits.
GUEST INFORMATION SERVICES:
Automatedinformation devices in public hotel areas that enable guests to obtaininformation about in-house events and local activities.
Atype of ledger that consists of individual records (called folios) ofthe hotel's registered guests. The guest ledger provides current statuson guest charges and payments; the front office is responsible forsummarizing these transactions during the guest's stay. A guest ledgermay also be referred to as a front office ledger, transient ledger, orroom ledger.
The variety and percentage distributionof hotel guests-- individual, group, business, leisure, and so on--whostay at a hotel or patronize a restaurant.
A listof the characteristics that a property's guests have in common. Theguest profile helps management to identify which market segments theproperty appeals to and which segments the property wants to attract.
The establishment of personal rapport and goodwill with guests through service and attention to individual guest
needs.In a narrower sense, the promotion of in-house products and services,the entertainment of VIPs, and the handling of socialfunctions--especially in a resort hotel.
GUARANTEED RESERVATIONS :
Areservation that is guaranteed by the guest to be paid even if theguest fails to arrive. Often this guarantee is made by a company orwith a credit card.
GUEST SERVICE MANAGER (GSM):
Manager of the guest services depatment.
GUEST SERVICE REPRESENTATIVE (GSR):
Employees who provide check-in check-out, mail, key, message, and information services for guests.
Aquestionnaire completed by guests and used by managers to definecurrent markets and to improve the operation. Managers may talk withguests through the survey or leave the questionnaires with them to fillout. Questionnaires may be long, and some questions may requiredetailed answers.
GUESTROOM CONTROL BOOK:
A book used to monitorthe number of guestrooms committed to groups. It controls guestroombooking activity by providing the sales office with the maximum numberof guestrooms it can sell to groups on a given day. The remainingguestrooms (and any unsold guestrooms allotted to groups) are availablefor individual guests.
A key that opens a single guestroom door if it is not double-locked.
Aform of preventive maintenance involving the inspection of a number ofitems in the guestroom, minor lubrication of doors and other equipment,repair of obvious small problems and, when needed, the initiation of awork order for more substantial problems or needs.
A wine bottle that contains approximately 12.5 ounces (375 ml), usually adequate for two guests.
Aportable container for storing, holding, and transporting cleaningsupplies. Typically located on the top shelf of the room attendant'scart.
HOBIC (Hotel Billing Information Center):
With a HOBICsystem, long-distance calls dialed by guests are intercepted by a localoperator who records the guest's room number and completes the call.The cost of the call is then transmitted back to the hotel and recordedvia a HOBIC teleprinter, usually located near the front desk. Theappropriate charges are posted to the guest's folio, and the guest isbilled at check-out.
The addition of hops to the wort during the brewing process.
The cordial and generous reception of guests. Derived from the Latin term hospes, "a guest."
Lodging and food service businesses that provide short-term or transitional lodging and/or food.
A room used for entertaining (e.g., a cocktail party); usually a function room or parlor.
A large lodging facility, generally a hotel is full service and a multi-story building with interior entrance guest rooms.
A group of affiliated hotels.
HOTEL GUEST CYCLE:
Thesequence of phases that begins with pre-sale events, continues throughpoint-of-sale activities, and concludes with post-sale transactions.The phases identify the physical contacts and financial exchanges thatoccur between guests and various revenue centers within a lodgingoperation.
HOTEL MANAGEMENT COMPANY:
A company that is hired to professionally manage a hotel(s) for other owners.
Anindividual who offers hotel reservations to wholesalers, travel agents,and the public. A hotel representative or "rep" may be paid by thehotels he or she represents on a fee basis or by commission. Many hotelreps also offer marketing and other services.
Beverage brand served when the guest does not request a specific brand.
Aprivate club committee made up of members whose job it is to monitorthe maintenance and operation of the clubhouse and its services.
A guest credit limit predetermined by management officials.
A department of the rooms division, responsible for cleaning the hotel's guestrooms and public areas.
A container located in the underbar with readily available ice for making drinks.
An appliance that makes cubed, crushed, or flaked ice automatically.
Travel financed by a business as an employee incentive.
Guest charges on a folio or bill for items other than room and tax such as; food, beverage, phone, movies, etc.
Atour in which specific elements--air fare, hotels, transfers, etc.--areincluded for a flat rate. An inclusive tour rate does not necessarilycover all costs.
INDEPENDENT FOOD SERVICE OPERATION:
Anoperation owned by an owner or owners with one or more propertieshaving no chain relationship. Menus, food purchase specifications,operating procedures, etc. may differ among the owned properties.
A hotel with no chain or franchise affiliation. It may be owned by an individual proprietor or a group of investors.
INDIRECTLY FIRED WATER HEATER:
A water heater in which steam enters a coil or heat exchanger that transfers heat from the steam to the water.
A foodborne disease caused by bacteria or viruses that reproduce inside the body after being ingested.
An oven that uses infrared electromagnetic waves to cook food quickly at very high temperatures. Also called a quartz oven.
IN-ROOM BEVERAGE SERVICE SYSTEM:
Acomputer-based system capable of monitoring sales transactions anddetermining inventory replenishment quantities. Two popular in-roombeverage service systems are non-automated honor bars andmicroprocessor-based vending machines.
Acomputer-based check-out procedure that provides guests with a way toaccess and review their folio data and approve and settle theiraccounts in their rooms. The technology involves interfacing theguestroom telephone, the television, and an in-room computer with theproperty management system's guest accounting module.
IN-ROOM GUEST CONSOLE:
Amulti-feature phone that may include such functions as two-wayspeakerphone capability; a jack for portable computer use; an alarmclock; radio; remote control of heating, ventilating, and airconditioning, television, and room lights; energy management; and atheft alarm.
IN-ROOM MOVIE SYSTEM:
Guestroom entertainmentprovided through a dedicated television pay channel. Charges for theuse of this in-room entertainment are posted to the appropriate guestfolio.
A smaller lodging facility, generally an inn is limited service and one to three stories.
Travel people make outside their country of residence.
(1)Although the legal definition varies from state to state, in manystates intoxication is defined as a blood-alcohol concentration (BAC)of .10 gram or higher of alcohol per 100 milliliters of blood.
(2)In sanitation management, a foodborne disease that results from theingestion of poisonous plants or animals or of toxin-contaminatedfood.
Distinctive whiskey of Ireland madeprincipally from barley, both malted and unmalted, together with oats,wheat, and sometimes a small proportion of rye.
A machine that uses rollers to iron linens, giving them a crisp, finished look. Some ironers also fold and stack linens.
Sculpted terry or velvet fabric.
Full-bodied rum, with a heavy rum flavor, pungent bouquet, rich golden hue, and dark color; distilled in pot stills.
Double-endedmeasuring devices typically made of stainless steel. Each end of thejigger holds a different amount (for example, three-fourths of an ounceand either an ounce or an ounce and a half).
Natural plant fiber used to stuff solid mattresses.
One thousand calories; a unit of heat measurement, or of the energy-producing value of food when eaten and digested.
One thousand grams; unit of weight measurement.
A bed approximately 78 inches by 80 inches.
Fruit brandy distilled from cherries; smooth, mellow, with the subtle fragrance of cherries.
A method of adding carbon dioxide by putting the brew through a second fermentation in a pressurized tank.
KROC, RAY (1902-1984):
Founderof McDonald's. The success of McDonald's is due in large part to Kroc'semphasis on quality, service, cleanliness, and value.
Aprocess of bottom fermentation during which the yeast works slowly atthe requisite low temperatures. The slow pace results in fewercongeners and a more mellow product. The term is derived from theGerman Lagerbier meaning "beer to be stored." After fermentation, thebrew is stored at cold temperatures.
A guestroom with a balcony or patio, overlooking water or a garden.
Distinguishingfeature that stands out and provides a reference point for orientation.Landmarks also provide travelers with information about direction anddistance.
A guest holding a reservation who plansto arrive after the property's designated cancellation hour and sonotifies the property.
Charged purchase made by a guest that is posted to the guest's folio after the guest has settled his or her account.
A guest who is being allowed to check out later than the property's standard check-out time.
Mattress made of whipped synthetic rubber. A foam rubber mattress is a latex mattress.
The loss of cementing constituents from concrete caused by the migration of water through cracks in the slab.
Arestaurant with a small selection of food and limited services.Limited-menu restaurants emphasize speed of preparation and delivery,making convenience one of the main reasons for their appeal.
LIMITED SERVICE HOTEL:
Alodging facility that offers no or very few amenities, services orextra facilities such as restaurants, pools, meeting rooms, etc.Generally an inn or motel is limited service.
Area ina hospitality operation that is often considered the headquarters ofthe housekeeping department. This is the area where the housekeepingemployee typically reports to work, receives room assignments, roomstatus reports, and keys; assembles and organizes cleaning supplies;and checks out at the end of his or her shift.
A flavored, usually sweet alcoholic beverage with an alcohol content higher than fortified wine, but lower than most liquors.
Unsweetened, high-alcohol-content beverages such as gin, vodka, rum, and the various whiskeys, including scotch.
LONG-TERM STAY/RELOCATION GUESTS:
Those individuals or families relocating to an area who require lodging until permanent housing can be found.
A light noonday meal.
Alodging facility that is generally small and often designed in locatedin a rustic outdoors environemnt or activities such as; fishing,skiing, boating, eco-tours.
A business that rents guestrooms to the public on a nightly or shorter term range of dates, i.e. weekly, month to month.
Lodging and food service businesses that provide short-term or transitional lodging.
A hotel with high room rates that features exceptional service and amenities.
A restaurant that
(a) features fine dining--an exciting menu, not necessarily French or haute cuisine; and
(b)employs well-trained, creative chefs and skilled food servers. Luxuryrestaurants are generally small and independently operated, with moreemployees per guest than other types of restaurants.
Any grain that has been sprouted and then dried to prevent further development; used in brewing and distilling.
Accordingto the U.S. government, "a beverage containing 0.5% or more of alcohol,brewed or produced from malt, wholly or in part, or from any substancethereof." Beers, ales, stouts, and porters are part of the maltbeverage group.
A brew made (or that should be made)from straight malt with no adjuncts; it has a more pronounced maltflavor, is slightly darker than regular beer, and usually has a higheralcohol content, ranging from 3.2% to 8% by weight.
Likestraight malt whiskey except for age. When the label says only "maltwhiskey," the whiskey may have an age of up to two years. Straight maltwhiskey will be a minimum of two years old.
A fermentable sugar produced by conversion of the starch of sprouting barley grains by malt enzymes, principally diastase.
Aseasoned liquid, usually containing vegetable or olive oil and an acidsuch as wine, vinegar, or fruit juice. Herbs, spices, or vegetables areoften added for flavoring.
The process of grindingbarley malt into a grist along with adjuncts and heated water, cookingthe grist, then filtering out any grain residue to produce a clear,warm, sugary fluid called wort.
Wide-scale travelby a large number of people--not just the elite--brought about by theincrease in leisure time, discretionary income, and reliable andinexpensive modes of transportation such as the automobile and airplane.
Travelers participating in wide-scale travel designed for large numbers of people.
A bill that all charges for the members of a group are posted to.
A key that can open all guestroom doors that are not double-locked.
(1) Aging wine in the bottle; it is usually associated with complex, full-bodied reds such as a good red Bordeaux or Burgundy.
(2) The aging of whiskey in charred oak barrels to develop its characteristic taste, color, and aroma.
Anoven having moving mechanical parts that assist in cooking. Typicalexamples are the revolving oven, traveling-tray oven, and rotary oven.
A large restaurant, usually characterized by elaborate or unusual decor, that enjoys a high level of patronage.
Akeyboard overlay for an ECR/POS system terminal that identifies thefunction performed by each key during a specific meal period.
An oven that uses very short electromagnetic waves to cook food.
Hotelthatcaters mostly to persons who must be in an area for a week or longer.The guestrooms of mid-price/extended-stay hotels have more living spacethan regular hotel guestrooms, and may also have cooking facilities.Guestrooms in these hotels tend to be less expensive than guestrooms infull-service or all-suite hotels.
A modest butsufficient level of service that appeals to the largest segment of thetraveling public. A mid-range property may offer uniformed service,airport limousine service, and food and beverage room service; aspecialty restaurant, coffee shop, and lounge; and special rates forcertain guests.
An odorous fungus growth that can occur on bathroom surfaces, especially on tile grout, shower curtains, doors, and walls.
Asmall, under-the-table unit that can be stocked with liquor, beer, andwine, usually located within a hotel room for the convenience of guests.
A drink with the appearance of a regular drink, but about a fourth of the alcohol.
MISE EN BOUTEILLE A LA PROPRIETE:
Literally,"bottled by the owner (of the vineyard)." A term sometimes found on thelabel of French wines. Used by vine growers who bottle their own wines.It also indicates the origin of the grapes used to make the wine.
MISE EN BOUTEILLE AU DOMAINE:
Literally,"bottled at the place (or residence)." A term often found on the labelsof French wines. Used by vine growers who bottle their own wines. Italso indicates the origin of the grapes used to make the wine.
Anappliance used to knead, whip, emulsify, slice, mix, beat, grind, orchop different types of solid food, solid food and liquid(s), or two ormore different liquids. Typically, the motor is above the bowl, withthe attachments hanging from the motor. Commonly known as a blender.
MODIFIED AMERICAN PLAN:
A room rate that includes one or two meals usually breakfast and dinner.
Cooking methods that require water or another liquid.
Asmaller lodging facility, generally a motel is limited service and oneto two stories with exterior entrance rooms that guest can drive up to.Often referred to as motor hotel.
MULTIPLE GUEST SPLITS:
Charges that are to be divided among a group of guests.
Cotton fabric made of carded cotton.
The juice and often other parts of the grape produced by crushing and pressing the grapes; the must then undergoes fermentation.
NATIONAL TOURISM OFFICE:
Primarygovernment agency responsible for implementing national goals andpublic policy with respect to tourism, and for providing informationservices to international travelers.
Basically theproduct of grape fermentation without the addition of alcohol, sugar(beyond a small amount allowed for certain wines under specifiedconditions), or other additives except a small amount of sulfur.Natural fermentation stops when there is no more sugar to convert toalcohol or when the alcohol reaches 14% by volume.
Analcoholic spirit purified in the still to a minimum of 95% of absolutealcoholic purity. At that point, the spirit is considered to have noimportant taste and little body. Although neutral spirits may bedistilled from many materials, they are almost always distilled fromfermented grain mashes. Neutral spirits are used to make blendedwhiskey. In original distillation, or redistillation, over juniperberries and other aromatics, neutral spirits become dry gin. Filteredthrough charcoal, neutral spirits become vodka. Neutral spirits arealso the base for many cordials and liqueurs.
NEW ENGLAND RUM:
Full-bodiedrum produced in the United States from molasses shipped from the WestIndies; distilled at less than 160 U.S. proof; also a straight rum.
Foodproduct that resists spoilage unless it is improperly handled andstored; for example, dry grocery items such as sugar, flour, spices,and dry beans.
A report prepared each nightby a front desk agent that lists rooms occupied that night and alsolists those guests expected to check out the following day.
A room status term indicating that a guest is currently registered to the room.
ON THE ROCKS:
Term that refers to a drink served in a glass with ice in it.
ONLINE RESERVATION SYSTEM:
Aninternet based system used by hotels that allows prospective hotelguests to check availability and make reservations at the hotel.
See Fabric Brightener.
Aroom status term indicating that a room cannot be assigned to a guest.A room may be out-of-order for maintenance, refurbishing, deepcleaning, or other reasons.
Air taken from outside the building envelope and not previously heated or cooled by the building's mechanical systems.
Any beverage a guest orders that is to be served in a separate glass along with his or her drink. See Water (Soda) Back.
BACK OF THE HOUSE:
The functional areas of a hotel or restaurant in which employees have little or no direct guest contact, such as kitchen areas, engineering and maintenance, and the accounting department.
That part of the back wall of a bar that is used for storage--which may include refrigerated storage--and display, which may consist of mirrors, photographs, or memorabilia. Compare Underbar.
Two drinks purchased at one time by or for one guest.
A meal prepared for a particular group, for which the number of guests and the menu are predetermined. Most properties offering banquet service have special facilities for banquet food production and service.
See Banquet Event Order (BEO).
BANQUET EVENT ORDER (BEO):
Also called a banquet function sheet or banquet prospectus, the BEO acts as a contract for the client and serves as a work order for the catering department. The form confirms final banquet arrangements--time and place of function, menu, service notes, gratuity, payment, and guarantee clauses.
A table d'hôte menu--a set meal with few, if any, choices. Banquet meals tend to be elaborate.
Benches, usually upholstered, that are built in along a wall.
That area of a beverage operation in which drinks are prepared and from which drinks are sold.
BAR AND BEVERAGE OPERATIONS:
A term that includes all possible combinations of establishments serving alcoholic beverages. Typical examples are bars and lounges.
The primary types of beverages that a beverage operation is prepared to serve, including draft and/or bottled beers, wine, mixed drinks, and specialty drinks. The bar menu usually includes the projected drink preferences of the operation's target markets.
The amount established for each type of beverage to be stored in the backbar. This amount is generally based on expected consumption. See also Par.
The seeds (grains) of the barley plant. With few exceptions, barley is the major ingredient of beers, ales, and other malt beverages throughout the world.
BASIC ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION:
An approach to keeping rodents and insects out of a food establishment, requiring all materials that serve as food or shelter for pests to be made pest-resistant or removed from the facility and its immediate vicinity.
Extra-large bath towels. Also called bath sheets.
The principal compartment, generally of a suite, that is the space equivalent of a standard guestroom. A suite may have a single-bay or multiple-bay living room.
A Beaujolais wine that is notable for being rushed to market within a few months of harvest; it is a fruity, refreshing wine, popular throughout the world for the few months in which it is sold each year. Also called Beaujolais Primeur.
BED & BREAKFAST (B&B):
A small inn or lodge that provides a room and a breakfast. Often a B&B is in a residential home setting and/or a historic building converted to a quaint lodging facility.
A clean glass that is completely free of invisible grease and detergent residue, substances that can cause beer to lose its foam too quickly. A glass that looks clean may not be clean enough for beer.
A large panel designed to carry outdoor advertising.
An operator-assisted call that allows guests to have an operator place their calls and then advise the hotel of the charges.
The person responsible for charging to hotel guests all vouchers representing food, beverages, room service, and merchandise purchases.
A type of spirit, bitters are usually made from roots, spices, bark, berries, fruit, or herbs steeped in or distilled with a neutral spirit. They are used primarily as cocktail ingredients and have a highly flavorful, aromatic, bitter taste. Well-known names among bitters are Angostura, Abbot's, Peychaud's, and Orange.
BLANC DE BLANCS:
Literally, "white from whites," it means a white wine, usually Champagne, made solely from white grapes--Chardonnay grapes, in particular.
BLANC DE NOIR:
Literally, "white from black," it means a white wine, usually Champagne, made from black (or red) grapes which are fermented with the skins removed.
The process of exposing a food product to either steam or hot water for a short time, setting the color of green vegetables and rendering enzymes inactive. Blanching destroys some microorganisms.
A chemical used in laundry operations to remove stains, kill bacteria, and whiten fabrics. There are two kinds of bleaches: chlorine and oxygen. Chlorine bleach can be used with any washable, natural, colorfast fiber. Oxygen bleach is milder than chlorine bleach and is generally safe for most washable fabrics. Oxygen bleach should never be used with chlorine bleach as the two will neutralize each other.
A light-bodied, soft whiskey, mild in flavor and aroma, made as a mixture or blend of neutral spirits and straight whiskey. By U.S. law, this whiskey must contain a minimum of 20% by volume of 100 proof straight whiskey.
(1) In wine making, the use of different grape varieties in making one wine or (more commonly) the practice of blending different wines (wines from different years or with different taste characteristics) to create one brand of wine.
(2) In whiskey production, the process of mixing different batches of new whiskey distillates together to achieve a balanced product that is usually better than any of its parts. Blending sometimes involves mixing different types of whiskeys, and sometimes mixing whiskeys of the same type that differ in age or character.
A German beer that is darker, richer, somewhat sweeter than regular 3.2% beer and contains more alcohol.
(1) Referring to wines, the degree of consistency, texture, firmness, or viscosity of a wine.
(2) Referring to spirits, an indication of the amount of aroma and flavor a spirit possesses. Thus, a heavy-bodied whiskey is one having full flavor and aroma while a bodied whiskey has less flavor and aroma.
An online system used by hotels that allows prospective hotel guests to check availability and make reservations at the hotel.
A whiskey produced from a grain mixture containing at least 51% corn. Although different bourbons use different grain formulas, the usual ratio is 60% corn, 28% rye, and 12% barley malt.
Any distilled spirit made from fruit or fruit derivatives qualifies as a brandy. However, only a spirit distilled from grapes can be called just "brandy"; if distilled from other fruit, the type of fruit must precede the word "brandy" (as in "pear brandy").
A process that consists of putting the wort in huge brew kettles, adding hops, boiling the mixture to sterilize the wort and extract the flavor of the hops, draining off the remaining hops, and cooling the mixture down according to the type of brew desired.
An assortment of foods offered on a table in self-service fashion.
Hot and cold foods attractively arranged on platters are placed on large serving tables and guests walk up to help themselves. Sometimes each course is placed on a separate table. Service personnel, such as carvers, may be required to assist guests.
In bartending, a method of preparing drinks in which ingredients are poured into the glass in which the drink will be served. See also Pousse-Café.
A hotel's desired blend of business from various segments such as business transient, corporate group, leisure, and convention.
A legal reason for choosing one employee over another, as defined by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Also a limited and narrow defense for charges of discrimination brought under the Civil Rights Act of 1964. To succeed, the employer must show that the discriminatory act is essential to the conduct of its business. To date, most of the acceptable cases have involved job-related safety issues such as special training or experience for airline pilots, bus drivers, and so on. See also Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (BFOQ).
A guestroom adjacent to the pool area, with or without sleeping facilities.
A food service operation in which guests pass through serving lines and help themselves to food items or receive food items from service staff.
CALL ACCOUNTING SYSTEM:
A system that is part of the telephone equipment that prices telphone calls made by hotel guests and sends the information to the property management system (PMS) for billing.
In beverage operations, a specific brand that guests request by name when they place an order. For instance, guests may request a "Beefeater martini" rather than simply "a martini." Compare Well Brand.
A drink made from a call brand.
A credit card for making telephone calls; issued by either the local phone company or a long-distance company.
CALLING CARD CALL:
A call typically billed to a code number on a calling card issued by either the local phone company or a long-distance company, usually with a per-call surcharge.
Distinctive whisky of Canada, characteristically light, mild, and delicate. It is distilled from mashes of corn, rye, and malted barley, much like those used by American distillers, and is usually aged in used or re-charred white-oak barrels. Most Canadian whiskies are blended whiskies, combining heavy- and light-bodied whiskies.
A reservation voided by a guest.
A specific time after which a property may release for sale all unclaimed non-guaranteed reservations, according to property policy.
A number issued to a guest who properly cancels a reservation, proving that a cancellation was received and acted upon.
A type of business and industrial food service that includes portable or mobile on-street catering.
A plastic card, resembling a credit card, used in place of a metal key to open a guestroom door. Card keys require electronic locks.
A variation of table service used by servers for preparing menu items beside the guest's table in the dining room. Menu items are cooked, and sometimes flambéed, in front of the guest.
(1) A beverage setup at a special function (such as a banquet) where each guest pays for each drink as it is ordered.
(2) A private room bar setup where guests pay for drinks individually; also known as a "C.O.D. bar" or "à la carte bar."
A hotel that features legal gambling, with the hotel operation subordinate to the gambling operation.
A hotel manager who promotes and sells a hotel's banquet facilities and uses his or her expertise to plan, organize, and execute hotel banquets.
CENTER CITY HOTEL:
Full-service hotel located in a downtown area.
CENTRAL HEATING SYSTEM:
A system in which heat is supplied to areas of a building from a central unit through a network of ducts or pipes.
CENTRAL RESERVATION OFFICE:
Part of an affiliate reservation network. A central reservation office typically deals directly with the public, advertises a central (usually toll-free) telephone number, provides participating properties with necessary communications equipment, and bills properties for handling their reservations.
CENTRAL RESERVATION SYSTEM:
An external reservation network. See also Affiliate Reservation System and Non-Affiliate Reservation System.
CHAIN OPERATING COMPANY:
A firm that operates several properties, such as Holiday Inn Worldwide or Hilton Hotels Corporation. Such an operator provides both a trademark and a reservation system as an integral part of the management of its managed properties.
A restaurant that is part of a multi-unit organization. Chain restaurants often share the same menu, purchase supplies and equipment cooperatively, and follow operating procedures that have been standardized for every restaurant in the chain.
Including sub-recipes as ingredients for a particular standard recipe. A particular menu item that includes a number of sub-recipes can thus be maintained as a single record in the food service computer system.
The traditional method of making champagne (French méthode champenoise) in which the second fermentation takes place in the bottle in which the champagne is sold. It is a laborious and exacting process, which accounts for the high price of the best champagne.
Adding sugar to the must before fermentation, a process often necessary when weather conditions prevent grapes from ripening fully and developing enough natural sugar to convert into the amount of alcohol prescribed (often by law) for certain wines.
A kitchen appliance with a bed that radiates heat produced by burners just below the bed; a grate above the bed holds the food. It gives food an appearance and a flavor similar to that achieved with a charcoal fire.
CHARMAT (Bulk) PROCESS:
A much less expensive process than the traditional method of making champagne and other sparkling wines. The second fermentation takes place in a vat and the wine is later filtered and bottled under pressure.
To hire the exclusive use of any aircraft, vessel, or other vehicle.
The procedures for a guest's arrival and registration.
(1) The procedures for a guest's departure and the settling of his or her account.
(2) A room status term indicating that the guest has settled his or her account, returned the room keys, and left the property.
CHEF DE PARTIE:
The chef in charge of a particular food production area in the kitchen.
CHEF DU RANG:
In French service, the employee responsible for taking orders, serving drinks, preparing food at the table, and collecting sales income. If there is no sommelier or wine steward, the chef du rang may serve wine.
A menu for children featuring simple, nutritious food served in small portions. Children's menus are usually designed to entertain the child; they may fold into hats or masks, be shaped like animals, or have word games, stories, or mazes printed on them.
CHINA, GLASSWARE, SILVER, AND LINEN:
A property, plant, and equipment asset account unique to hospitality firms.
CLASS A FIRES:
The burning of ordinary combustibles such as wood, paper, and cloth; can be extinguished by the cooling action of water-based or general purpose chemicals.
CLASS B FIRES:
Fires involving flammable liquids such as grease, gasoline, paints, and other oils; can be extinguished by eliminating the air supply and smothering the fire, not by using water.
CLASS C FIRES:
Electrical fires, usually involving motors, switches, and wiring; can be extinguished with chemicals that do not conduct electricity, never with water.
The hired professional responsible for guiding all of the elements of a private club's operation.
An automatic or semi-automatic machine that makes coffee and dispenses it into a coffee pot or into individual cups.
Superb brandy of France, with great aroma and the bouquet of grapes. It is produced in a legally delineated 150,000-acre area surrounding the ancient city of Cognac in the departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime in the southwest region of France. Under French law, only brandy distilled from wine made from grapes grown within this district may be called Cognac.
A travel agency that specializes in commercial business and usually has little or no walk-in clientele.
COMMERCIAL FOOD SERVICE OPERATION:
An operation that sells food and beverages for profit. Independent, chain, and franchise properties are all commercial food service operations.
A property, usually located in a downtown or business district, that caters primarily to business clients. Also called a transient hotel.
Travel for business purposes, not for pleasure.
COMMIS DU RANG:
In French service, the employee who assists the chef du rang. He or she may take food orders to the kitchen, pick up the food when it is ready, and take it to the cart at tableside for further preparation. A commis du rang may also deliver drink orders and serve food to guests.
(1) A central food production area from which food is transported to individual outlets for final preparation and service.
(2) A centralized servicing area for mobile food service units.
COMPLIMENTARY OCCUPANCY PERCENTAGE:
A ratio that shows the percentage of occupied rooms that are complimentary and generate no revenue; calculated by dividing complimentary rooms for a period by total available rooms for the same period. Sometimes referred to simply as complimentary occupancy.
A complimentary or "comp" room is an occupied room for which the guest is not charged. A hotel may offer comp rooms to a group in ratio to the total number of rooms the group occupies. One comp room may be offered for each fifty rooms occupied, for example.
An employee whose basic task is to serve as the guest's liaison with hotel and non-hotel attractions, facilities, services, and activities.
A hotel in which an investor takes title to a specific hotel room, which remains in the pool to be rented to transient guests whenever the investor is not using the room. The investor expects to receive a gain from the increase in value of the hotel over time, as well as receive ongoing income from the rental of his or her room.
(1) A pre-arranged travel program, usually for a group, that includes escort service.
(2) A sight-seeing program, such as a city tour, conducted by a guide. Also called an escorted tour.
A specialized hotel, usually accessible to major market areas but in less busy locations, that almost exclusively books conferences, executive meetings, and training seminars. A conference center may provide extensive leisure facilities.
An oral or written statement by the supplier (a carrier, hotel, car rental company, etc.) that he or she has received and will honor a reservation. Oral confirmations have virtually no legal worth. Even written or telegraphed confirmations have specified or implied limitations. For example, a hotel is not obligated to honor a confirmed reservation if the guest arrives after 6 p.m., unless late arrival is specified. Confirmed reservations may be either guaranteed or non-guaranteed.
A substance other than alcohol or water (for example, acids, glycerine, phenolics, butyl alcohol, propyl alcohol, fusel oil, aldehydes, and esters) which is found in wine and new spirit distillates. Congeners provide flavor and aroma and may be desirable or undesirable.
Two or more guestrooms with private connecting doors permitting guests access between rooms without their having to go into the corridor.
A small morning meal that usually includes a beverage, rolls, butter, and jam or marmalade.
A room rate that includes continental breakfast.
Like straight corn whiskey, except for age. When the label says only "corn whiskey" without the word "straight," the whiskey may have any age up to two years. Straight corn whiskey will be a minimum of two years old.
CORPORATE HOTEL CHAIN:
Hotel organization that has its own brand or brands, which may be managed by the corporate chain or by a conglomerate.
A brew which is created by mixing ale with lagered beer, resulting in a smoother, "creamier" taste and texture.
A casino employee who collects and pays bets and conducts games at gaming tables. Also called a dealer.
See Central Reservation System or Computer Reservation System (CRS).
Passenger ships designed for vacationers. Today's cruise ships feature a variety of activities and entertainment and can be thought of as floating resort hotels.
A travel agency that sells only cruises.
A particular style or manner of preparing or cooking food.
Window coverings made from lightweight material that allows light to filter through. Compare Draperies.
A blend of wines, sometimes from many different vintners or different years, which is then re-fermented to make Champagne.
DAILY MEAN TEMPERATURE:
The average of the maximum and minimum temperatures of a 24-hour day.
At a banquet, a raised platform on which the head table is placed.
A device used to vary the volume of air passing through an air outlet, inlet, or duct.
Beer that is similar in color to bock but not as sweet; it has a rich, creamy taste. Like bock, dark beer gets its color and pronounced flavor from malt sprouts roasted at high temperatures.
A special room rate for less than an overnight stay.
A glass container into which wine is carefully poured in order to separate the wine from any sediment that may have settled at the bottom of the wine bottle.
The process of gently and carefully pouring the wine from the bottle into another container (a decanter), leaving the sediment behind in the bottle. The wine is then served from the decanter.
An appliance in which foods are cooked by immersing them in heated fat. Often referred to simply as a deep fryer.
A measure of the need for air conditioning based upon outdoor temperatures. Cooling degree-days are calculated as follows: daily mean temperature - 65°F (18.3°C) = cooling degree-days for that day.
A measure of the need for heating based upon outdoor temperatures. Heating degree-days are calculated as follows: 65°F (18.3°C) - daily mean temperature = heating degree-days for that day.
A theme established to ensure overall consistency in the design of interior decor.
A separate menu designed to remind guests of the dessert items listed on the regular menu. It may also list desserts not shown on the regular menu and include dessert specials as well. Upscale restaurants may include after-dinner wines, cordials, brandies, and liqueurs on the dessert menu.
A wine that is meant to be served after dinner with a dessert or as a dessert; dessert wines are often fortified. See also Fortified Wine.
An effervescent German wine resembling Champagne. By regulation, it must be made from German grapes.
See Corporate Club.
Owner of a managed hotel who either developed and retained the property or purchased an existing hotel.
The standard food cost for items combined to form dinners or other meals that are priced and sold as one menu selection.
A journey on which the passenger does not have to change planes. Not necessarily non-stop.
The first-round effect of tourist spending.
DIRECTOR OF SALES (DOS):
The manager of a hotel sales department.
An appliance that washes and rinses dishes automatically.
The liquid distilled for spirits. See also Wort.
Travel within the traveler's country of residence.
A type of room service menu that a housekeeper can leave in the guestroom. A doorknob menu lists a limited number of breakfast items and times of the day that the meal can be served. Guests select what they want to eat and the time they want the food delivered, then hang the menu outside the door on the doorknob. The menus are collected and the orders are prepared and sent to the rooms at the indicated times.
A dishwashing machine in which a rack or racks of dishes remain stationary while heated wash and rinse water is sprayed from nozzles above and below the dishes. Also called a single-tank or stationary-rack dishwasher.
In the traditional Champagne method, the final step which adds wine, sugar, and, in some cases, brandy to the Champagne.
(1) A guestroom assigned to two people.
(2) In beverage operations, a drink prepared with twice the standard measure of alcohol in one glass.
DOUBLE OCCUPANCY PERCENTAGE:
See Multiple Occupancy Percentage.
DOUBLE OCCUPANCY RATE:
A rate used for tour groups that bases the per-person charge on two to a room.
A guestroom floor configuration in which rooms are laid out on both sides of a central corridor.
An occupied room for which the guest has refused housekeeping service by locking the room from the inside with a dead bolt. Double-locked rooms cannot be accessed by a room attendant using a standard passkey.
Unlike curtains, draperies are made of heavier material and are designed to keep light out. Draperies are better than curtains in absorbing sound and keeping heat from escaping through windows.
A sales promotion, such as two drinks for the price of one or half-priced drinks, offered during so-called happy hours.
A type of counter, usually placed against a wall, where guests can either sit on high stools or stand while drinking; often found in airport lounges.
The amount of alcohol, in fluid ounces, that is poured into each drink. It is not the size of the completed drink.
A brewing process in which the hops are soaked in the brew without boiling in order to extract a lighter, less bitter flavor.
A guest who arrives at the property before the date of his or her reservation.
A room status term indicating that the guest has reserved an early check-in time or has requested his or her room to be cleaned as soon as possible.
Low-impact tourism that avoids harming the natural or normal environment. In this relatively new approach to promoting enjoyment, as well as protection, of the environment, tourists seek out environmentally-sensitive travel and/or tours or vacations which, in some way, improve or add to their knowledge of an environment.
Literally, "ice wine," a rare German wine which can be made only when very ripe grapes are not harvested until late November; the grapes are allowed to freeze on the vine, then quickly harvested, rushed frozen to the presses, and pressed while frozen.
ESCOFFIER, GEORGES-AUGUSTE (1847-1935):
Chef who is considered the father of twentieth-century cookery. His two main contributions were (a) the simplification of classical cuisine and the classical menu, and (b) the reorganization of the kitchen.
A person, usually employed by a tour operator, who accompanies a tour from departure to return and serves as guide, trouble-shooter, etc.
A group of travelers traveling with a guide who has travel experience and has set up an itinerary for the group.
Menu featuring the cuisine of a particular nation or ethnic group, such as Chinese, Mexican, or Italian.
A restaurant featuring the cuisine of a particular nation or ethnic group, such as Chinese, Mexican, or Italian.
A room rate that does not include any meals.
A floor of a hotel that offers exceptional service to business and other travelers. Also called a business floor or the tower concept.
The person in charge of a housekeeping department in a lodging property. The executive housekeeper is a member of the management team.
EXPECTED ARRIVAL/DEPARTURE REPORT:
A daily report showing the number and names of guests expected to arrive with reservations, as well as the number and names of guests expected to depart.
EXPECTED ARRIVALS LIST:
A daily report showing the number of guests and the names of guests expected to arrive with reservations.
EXPECTED DEPARTURES LIST:
A daily report showing the number of guests expected to depart, the number of stay-overs (the difference between arrivals and departures), and the names of guests associated with each transaction.
A staff member who acts as a communication link between kitchen personnel and servers. Servers give their orders to the expediter, who calls the orders to the appropriate kitchen stations. The expediter must know cooking times, coordinate them to sequentially deliver cooked foods for pickup, and provide leadership during hectic rush periods.
Type of laundry chemical that keeps fabrics looking new and the fabrics' colors close to their original shade. Fabric brighteners are often pre-mixed with detergents and soaps. Also called an optical brightener.
(1) The pile of a carpet.
(2) The nap of a towel.
Yarn forming the pile of a carpet.
Anappliance with a heated chamber in which food is cooked. Examplesinclude range, deck, roasting, convection, rotary, microwave, infrared,and recon ovens.
A versatile piece of cookingequipment that can be used as a convection oven or a pressurelessconvection steamer. Food is cooked with hot air that is kept moist withsteam.
Accepting reservations that exceed available rooms.
Putting in more alcohol than is called for in the standard recipe.
A guest who remains at the property after his or her stated departure date.
Aspecial offering of products and services created by a hotel toincrease sales. There are weekend packages, honeymoon packages, sportspackages, and so on. A typical package might, for a special price,include the guestroom, meals, and the use of the property'srecreational facilities.
A tour put together by atour packager or operator. Travelers who buy the package make the tripsby themselves rather than with a large group. The package offers, at aninclusive price, several travel elements which a traveler wouldotherwise purchase separately--any combination of lodging;sight-seeing; attractions; meals; entertainment; car rental; andtransportation by air, motorcoach, rail, or even private vehicle. Apackage tour may include more than one destination.
PACKAGED TERMINAL AIR CONDITIONING UNIT (PTAC):
Anessentially self-contained air conditioning unit, generally through thewall, in which a fuel provides heat and a refrigeration cycle providescooling.
PAID OCCUPANCY PERCENTAGE:
A ratio that indicatesmanagement's success in selling its product; calculated by dividingnumber of rooms sold by the number of available rooms.
A setup in which two exhibit areas are placed back to back with aisles on three sides.
Foodproduct that spoils readily without special processing or preservationtechniques. Perishable foods include most products used daily in a foodservice facility: meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, dairyproducts, and most fruits and vegetables.
A light, rich,and mellow lager with a dry, crisp, hoppy flavor and a light color; itis made from hops grown in the area around Pilsen, Czechoslovakia.
Avariation of table service; basic service style in which fully cookedmenu items are individually portioned, plated (put on plates) in thekitchen, and carried to each guest directly.
Atable service style in which servers carry platters of fully cookedfood to the dining room, present them to the guest for approval, andthen serve the food.
POINT OF SALE SYSTEM (POS):
A computerizedsystem that reatil outlets such as restaurants, gift shops, etc, enterorders and maintains various accounting information. The POS generallyinterfaces with the property management system (PMS).
(1) In beverage operations, the famous fortified sweet wine from Portugal.
(2) In computer technology, a plug on a computer hardware device that accommodates a cable coming from another hardware device.
(3) In housekeeping, an opening into a washing machine through which detergent can be poured. Also called a hopper.
A canopy designed to protect hotel guests from inclement weather and provide greater visibility to the main entrance.
Amalt beverage named for the English porters (servers) who first servedit; it is dark brown from the heavily roasted malt used to make it.
A standard quantity of food or beverage served for one person.
Thestandard food cost for an item that is sold as a single menu selection.The portion cost indicates the cost incurred by preparing one portionof the menu item according to its standard recipe.
Suitability for drinking.
Water that is suitable for drinking.
A drink built by very carefully floating one layer of liqueur on top of another.
Inbeverage operations, a commercially prepared mix available forcocktails; a Bloody Mary mix, for instance, with all the tomato juiceand various spices mixed proportionally, needing only the addition ofvodka.
PROPERTY MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (PMS):
A computerized frontdesk system that manages hotel room inventory, guest billing andinterfaces with various other systems such as telephone, callaccounting, point of sale (POS), entertainment, etc.
PROPRIETARY BOOKING ENGINE:
Ainternet reservation system that is owned and operated by an individualhotel or group of hotels to allow them to take reservation on their ownwebsite without paying a fee to the GDS, third party booking engines orfranchise reservation systems.
A bar where bartenders prepare alcoholic beverages for service to guests by others or by the bartenders themselves.
In menu management, an unpopular menu item with a high contribution margin.
A guestroom assigned to four people; may have two or more beds.
Thegroup of travelers for whom the quality of their vacation is ofparamount importance. They want and are willing to pay for first-classaccommodations and service.
A bed approximately 60 inches by 80 inches.
A convection oven into which employees can roll special racks filled with trays of food. Also called a roll-in oven.
The current rate charged for each accommodation as established by the property's management.
Inwine production, the process of separating wine from the sediment(lees) at the bottom of a cask by pouring it into another container,leaving the lees behind.
A food service appliance with aflat cooking surface for frying, grilling, sautéing, etc. Two basictypes of ranges are solid-top and open-top.
A small conventional oven located beneath a range, used for roasting and baking or as a food warmer.
A period between conference or work sessions during which coffee or other refreshments are served.
A chilled reach-in or walk-in storage unit used to maintain the quality of food.
REGIONAL GETAWAY GUESTS:
Guests who check into a hotel close to home in order to enjoy a weekend away from children or other responsibilities.
A guestroom that being held under an indivual or business' name at a particular hotel for a specific date or range of dates.
Anemployee, either in the front office or in a separate department, whois responsible for all aspects of reservations processing.
Adepartment within a hotel's rooms division staffed by skilledtelemarketing personnel who take reservations over the phone, answerquestions about facilities, quote prices and available dates, and sellto callers who are shopping around.
The managerin charge of the rooms division in a mid-size to large hotel. Sometimesresident managers are also in charge of security.
Ahotel, usually located in a desirable vacation spot, that offers finedining, exceptional service, activities unavailable at most otherproperties, and many amenities.
RETAIL TRAVEL AGENT:
An individual qualified to arrange and sell transportation and other travel services and products directly to the public.
Astatistic used in the hotel industry used to measure revenue peravailable room. Total hotel room revenue divided by the total roomsavailable to rent for a day or range of dates.
ROOM ATTENDANT'S CART:
Alightweight, wheeled vehicle used by room attendants for transportingcleaning supplies, linen, and equipment needed to fulfill a block ofcleaning assignments.
An agreed-upon number of rooms set aside for members of a group planning to stay at a hotel.
ROOM DATA CARD:
A card used to record information concerning the basic characteristics and major elements of an individual guestroom.
A detailed process in which guestrooms are systematically checked for cleanliness and maintenance needs.
One guestroom occupied for one night.
ROOM OCCUPANCY SENSOR:
Adevice that uses infrared light or ultrasonic sound waves to sense thephysical occupancy of a room. Sensors have the ability to turn ondevices and appliances such as lights, air conditioning, and heatingwhenever a guest enters a space, and to turn these devices andappliances off when the guest leaves.
A card indexsystem that is constantly updated to reflect occupied and vacant rooms.In the evening, the room rack contains forms for only those registeredguests remaining for the night who are to be charged for rooms. A dailyroom report can be prepared from the room rack.
The price a hotel charges for overnight accommodation. See also Rack Rate.
Thedepartment within a food and beverage division that is responsible fordelivering food or beverages to guests in their guestrooms. May also beresponsible for preparing the food and beverages.
ROOM SERVICE MENU:
Amenu offered by lodging properties that serve food to guests in theguestroom, suite, cabin, etc. Room service menus usually offer alimited number of items because it is difficult to maintain foodquality while transporting the food to the guest.
Informationabout current and future availability of guestrooms in a lodgingproperty. Current availability is determined through housekeeping data.Future availability is determined through reservations data.Information about availability data which extends several days into thefuture is important because it may affect the length of stay ofin-house guests.
ROOM STATUS DISCREPANCY:
A situation in whichthe housekeeping department's description of a room's status differsfrom the room status information that guides the front desk employee inassigning rooms to guests. Discrepancies can seriously affect aproperty's ability to satisfy guests and maximize rooms revenue.
A list of the guests who will occupy reserved accommodations. This list is submitted in advance by the buyer.
ROOMS ACTIVITY FORECAST:
Informationon anticipated arrivals, departures, stay-overs, and vacancies.Managers use this forecast to determine staffing needs at the frontdesk and in housekeeping areas.
ROOMS ALLOTMENT REPORT:
A report that summarizes rooms committed (booked or blocked), by future date.
ROOMS AVAILABILITY REPORT:
A report that lists, by room type, the number of available rooms each day (net remaining rooms in each category).
Alist, used for guestroom (preventive) maintenance, of all the items inthe guestroom with a brief notation opposite each item of the type ofinspection, repair, lubrication, adjustments, or cleaning activity tobe performed.
ROOMS DISCREPANCY REPORT:
A report that notes anyvariances between front desk and housekeeping room status updates. Itoften alerts management to investigate the possibility of sleepers. SeeSleeper.
The largest, and usually mostprofitable, division in a hotel. It typically consists of fourdepartments: front office, reservations, housekeeping, and uniformedservice.
ROOMS HISTORY REPORT:
A computer-based report thatdepicts the revenue history and use of each room by room type. Thisreport is especially useful to those properties employing an automaticroom assignment function.
ROOMS MANAGEMENT MODULE:
A front officeapplication of a computer-based property management system. The module(a) maintains up-to-date information on the status of rooms, (b)assists in the assignment of rooms during registration, and (c) helpscoordinate various guest services.
ROOMS PRODUCTIVITY REPORT:
A report that ranks room types by percentage of occupancy and/or by percentage of total rooms revenue.
ROOMS STATUS REPORT:
Areport that indicates the current status of rooms according tohousekeeping designations, such as: on-makeup, on-change, out-of-order,clean, and ready for inspection.
In newspaperadvertising, color used in regular sections of the paper and printed onstandard newsprint. See also Run-of-Paper (ROP).
A mechanical oven with circular shelves that move trays of food in a circle around a central axis within the heat chamber.
A cooking appliance that holds the food being broiled on a spit that rotates, exposing all sides to the broiler's burners.
Afamily of liquors distilled from the fermented juice of sugar cane ormolasses. Rum is produced in virtually all of the varioussugar-producing countries and in New England (from West Indiesmolasses). Differences in rums are a result of differences in theclimate and the soil in which the sugar cane grows, and in the methodsused in distillation.
A whiskey produced from a grain mixture containing at least 51% rye.
Traditional Japanese lodging facilities featuring tatami mat floors and Japanese landscaped gardens.
SAINT JULIAN THE HOSPITALLER:
The patron saint of innkeepers, travelers, and boaters.
The patron saint of food servers.
SALES BY BEVERAGE SERVER REPORT:
Areport produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicatingthe total sales of each beverage server during a shift.
SALES BY MAJOR BEVERAGE CATEGORY REPORT:
Areport produced by sophisticated automated beverage systems indicatingthe expected beverage income by major beverage category (liquor, beer,wine, etc.).
Type of weave in which warp threads interlace with filling threads to produce a smooth-faced fabric.
Asubgroup of ecotourism in which laypersons travel with scientists andstudents to help with scientific work at various sites throughout theworld. Science tourists often work very hard (even though they arepaying for the vacation) and make a contribution to a body ofscientific knowledge.
A distinctive spirit fromScotland with at least 80 proof alcohol content, manufactured incompliance with British laws; it is sold (and must be labeled) aseither "blended" or "single malt."
Foodproduct that has a longer shelf life than perishable foods, but shouldbe stored under recommended time-temperature combinations; includesnuts, apples, potatoes, and waxed vegetables such as cucumbers.
Arelatively small bar where service bartenders prepare alcoholicbeverages for servers to present to guests. Guests typically do notorder or pick up their own beverages at service bars.
Apercentage of the bill (usually 10% to 20%) added to the guest chargefor distribution to service employees in lieu of direct tipping.
A small work island located in a dining room.
The control point in which finished menu items are transferred from the production department to guests.
The manager in charge of a casino during a period of time, usually a six- to eight-hour shift.
A suite that consists of two small bays, each with windows to the outside.
A service stand that holds supplies of tableware, ice, condiments, dairy products, and some beverages for easy access.
Setupand cleanup work that must be done before and after dining rooms areopened. Examples include restocking server supply stations, fillingsalt and pepper shakers, etc.
Criteria used to determine which variances are significant. Generally expressed in both dollar and percentage differences.
Oilcloth or other padded material placed under the tablecloth to absorb noise.
A syrup made simply from sugar and water; used in cold drinks instead of granulated sugar, which takes too long to dissolve.
A bed approximately 36 inches by 75 inches.
A guest who leaves without paying.
Avacant room that is believed to be occupied because the room rack slipor registration card was not removed from the rack when the previousguest departed.
An appliance that has a spinning diskwith a knife-sharp edge for cutting food; the food is placed in a traywhich slides back and forth, pushing the food against the disk'sspinning edge.
Fruity brandy, distilled from plums. Soft, pleasant, with mellow plum fragrance.
Richred liqueur with delicate bouquet and tangy fruity flavor resemblingwild cherries. Generally made from a blend of sloe berries, from whichit derives its primary flavor, and other fruit flavors.
A mattress stuffed with hair, cotton, or some other material.
Termoften used in connection with straight whiskey. Sour mash identifies aproduction process, distinguished from the "sweet mash" technique ofdistillation. The name has nothing to do with the taste of thewhiskey--sour mash whiskeys are rich and mellow.
An assistant chef or cook.
Amineral spring, or a locality or resort hotel near such a spring, towhich people resorted for cures (from Spa, a watering place in easternBelgium). Today, the word spa is used more loosely to refer to anyfashionable resort locality or hotel.
A menuthat differs from the typical breakfast, lunch, or dinner menu.Specialty menus are usually designed for holidays and other specialevents or for specific guest groups. Children's, beverage, dessert, andbanquet menus are examples.
A theme restaurant that features certain types of food.
Anyalcoholic beverage containing a significant amount of distilledethanol; spirits are classified according to either their alcoholicsource or their processing method.
A wine bottle that contains about six ounces (187 ml), an amount suitable for serving one person.
Afood service method in which servers deliver courses separately. Splitservice helps maintain food quality and safety because each course canbe portioned and served when it is ready, eliminating short-termholding in the kitchen.
The Italian word for sparkling wine.
A room status term indicating that the guest is not checking out and will remain at least one more night.
Amalt beverage brewed predominantly from malt with very little adjunct,originally made in San Francisco; it is top-fermented and receives asecond fermentation which produces a creamy foam and high carbondioxide content.
An appliance, such as asteam-jacketed kettle or compartment steamer, that cooks food by thedirect or indirect application of steam, resulting in a minimum ofmoisture and nutrient loss. Also called steam-cooking equipment.
Laundryequipment that moves articles on hangers through a tunnel where thearticles are steamed and dewrinkled as they are moved through.
Asteam cooker in which steam does not come into direct contact withfood; instead, the steam is jacketed or trapped within the kettles'walls.
A process in which the fermentationof wine and beer is stopped and the product is passed through filtersfine enough to remove yeasts, bacteria, and other microorganisms. Nofurther fermentation can occur because all organisms that might causeit have been removed.
A process that destroysvirtually all microorganisms and their spores. Heating forsterilization usually takes place in a large container which ispressurized according to the food product, its ability to withstandheat, and packaging.
An apparatus in which distillationtakes place. There are two basic types of stills: (a) the old-fashionedpot still, which generally yields no more than 140 proof alcohol; and(b) the column or continuous still, which can be used almostcontinuously day and night and which can easily produce 190 proofalcohol in large volumes.
A method of mixing cocktails that consists of stirring with a bar spoon for a proper mixture.
Similarto porter but more "stout"--that is, higher in alcohol content thanporter; it is top-fermented and has a dark color, acquired from roastedunmalted barley. See Porter.
Any drink served without ice. See also Neat.
Analcoholic distillate of a fermented mash of grain, identified bycharacteristic taste, body, and aroma, and bottled exactly as it comesfrom the barrel in which it has matured, except for the addition ofpure water to reduce the proof to bottle proof. By U.S. law, straightwhiskey is aged a minimum of two years in new charred oak barrels. Thedistiller may call this product straight whiskey without a grain tag,or may use the grain tag (such as straight bourbon whiskey or straightrye whiskey) when 51% or more of the grain from which the whiskey isfermented consists of that grain. Straight corn whiskey, an exception,is made from a mash containing at least 80% corn.
A guestroom having one or two couches that convert into beds.
Inparking lot construction, a layer of sand, gravel, crushed stone, orother granular material that is sometimes placed between a preparedsubgrade and the surface course.
Recipes that are included as ingredients within a standard recipe record.
Ahotel that is somewhat smaller than a downtown hotel (typically 250 to500 rooms), is usually part of a chain, and has restaurants, bars, andother amenities found at downtown hotels.
(1) A guestroom with a parlor area in addition to a sleeping room, and perhaps a kitchenette.
(2) Several pieces of furniture of similar design, usually sold together to outfit a complete room.
A hotel whose sleeping rooms have separate bedroom and living room or parlor areas, and perhaps kitchenettes.
A full-course meal with limited choice at a fixed price.
TABLE D'HOTE MENU:
Amenu that offers a complete meal for one price. Sometimes two or morecomplete meals are offered on the menu, each with its own price. Mealson table d'hôte menus are set by the menu planner and guests are givenfew, if any, choices.
A raised reading desk that holds the speaker's papers and that rests on a table. Sometimes mistakenly called a table podium.
Atype of service in which guests are seated at a table and waited on byfood servers. Four basic styles of table service are American, English,French, and Russian.
A piece of linen that covers the sides of the table.
TABLE TOP DISPLAY:
A portable display that can be placed on top of a table.
THIRD PARTY BOOKING ENGINE:
Aninternet site that provides a booking engine where a traveler cansearch a large number of lodging facilities for availability andreserve a room. The lodging facilities are not affiliated with the siteand pays a fee for the business that the third party site generates.Examples of third party sites include; hotels.com, priceline.com.
Adistinctive Mexican liquor distilled from the fermented juice of theblue variety of the agave plant; its fermentation and distillationprocess is complex and strictly controlled by the Mexican government.
An event at which food, entertainment, and decorations all relate to a central theme.
A restaurant distinguished by its combination of decor, atmosphere, and menu, all of which relate to a particular theme.
A famous sweet wine from Hungary. It is a blend of wines made from grapes infected by the noble rot.
Any pre-arranged (but not necessarily prepaid) journey to one or more places and back to the point of origin.
Anindividual licensed and bonded by the Interstate Commerce Commission tooperate motorcoach tours in the United States and, in some cases,Canada, as permitted by the scope of his or her license. Also known asa motorcoach broker or tour operator.
A business that puts together travel tours and sells them directly to individuals or through travel agencies.
Thelong-term process of preparing for the arrival of tourists; entailsplanning, building, and managing attractions, transportation,accommodation, services, and facilities that serve the tourist.
Self-contained resort complex that caters to all the needs of tourists who arrive as part of a tour or other type of package.
The process of preparing for tourism development; a tool for addressing the choices associated with tourism development.
A guestroom floor configuration in which rooms are grouped around a central vertical core.
Lodging operation that caters primarily to business people; transient hotels tend to be busiest Monday through Thursday.
Atype of travel agency that charges an annual fee to its members and inreturn offers packaged vacations to members at reduced prices.
A170-room Boston hotel that opened in 1829. It was the first hotel tohave bellpersons, front desk agents, locks on guestroom doors, and freesoap for guests. It is considered the first modern American hotel.
A guestroom with two twin beds.
A bed approximately 39 inches by 75 inches.
Astrip of lemon peel twisted over a drink to flavor it with lemon oil(often followed by dropping the twisted peel into the drink).
Theprimary working space for the bartender; it is that area of the barthat is in front of the bartender as he or she faces the guests and, asthe name would indicate, mostly (but not entirely) below the level ofthe bar itself.
A guest who checks out before his or her stated departure date.
UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY:
Adevice equipped with a battery pack that is placed on the computer'spower line so that any fluctuation in the power coming to the computerwill trigger the battery pack to compensate for any energy deficienciesand provide the computer with a continuously stable energy source.
To move to a better accommodation or class of service.
A room status term indicating that the room has been cleaned and inspected, and is ready for the arriving guest.
A wine produced from a single variety of grape.
Any plant grown for an edible part other than the ovary, which is classified as fruit.
A vegetable (such as the tomato) technically classified as a fruit because it contains the ovary of the plant.
The process of supplying air to or removing air from an interior space.
Anappliance that chops, cuts, mixes, blends, stirs, grates, kneads,purees, and emulsifies food. Its blade is attached directly to theinside bottom of the mixing bowl.
An alternativeform of tourism in which the tourist can experience life in a ruralplace--fishing village, farm, historic village, etc.--by staying in thehome of a resident, in a dormitory, or in some other type ofaccommodation.
Literally, "foamy wine," the name used for sparkling wines made in France outside of the Champagne district.
The year in which the grapes for a wine were grown.
A variety of grape vine, native to North America, that thrives in colder areas and is resistant to phylloxera.
Common material from which toilets are made.
Aclear, colorless, flavorless spirit made by passing highly refinedneutral spirits through charcoal, by redistillation, or by othergovernment-approved processes.
A system that is partof the telephone equipment which provides for hotel guests and staff toretrieve a messages left by a caller.
A guest who arrives at a hotel without a reservation.
A large refrigerator or freezer used in high-volume kitchens for storage of perishable items.
WALKING A GUEST:
A situation in which a hotel is unable to honor a guest's reservation and helps the guest find accommodation elsewhere.
A hotel that offers a large recreational water elements such large pools, multiple pools, slides or other water related venues.
In food and beverage operations, a section of fruit, usually lime or lemon, used for garnish.
Adrink made from an inexpensive house brand of liquor, usually kept in a"well" below the bar where customers cannot see the labels.
Thegeneric term for a family of spirits made from grains. Scotch, Irish,American (bourbon), and Canadian whiskey are among the foremostexamples. Each type of whiskey will have unique characteristicsaccording to the grain used, fermentation process, distillation, andprocessing after distillation.
The fermented juice of fruit, usually grapes.
A private club located near a large body of water, whose main purpose is to provide facilities such as marinas to boat owners.
Atype of living organism that converts starches or other sugars intoglucose; in the process of metabolizing glucose, yeasts produce carbondioxide and ethyl alcohol.
A process orstrategy that hotel operators use to maximize their hotel room revenueby achieving the right balance between room rates and occupancy thatgenerates the most revenue.
ZERO COUPON BOND:
A bond that pays no interest and hence is sold at a discount from its face value.
0 - CALL (Zero - Call):
Atelephone call placed with an operator's assistance. Examples mayinclude calling- and credit-card calls, collect calls, and third-partycalls.
Lighting designed to facilitate traffic from one space to another.